Case expresses the relation of a word to another word in the word-group or sentence (my sister’s coat). The category of case correlates with the objective category of possession. The case category in English is realized through the opposition: The Common Case :: The Possessive Case (sister :: sister’s). The scope of meanings rendered by the Genitive Case is the following: 1. Possessive Genitive : Mary’s father – Mary has a father, 2. Subjective Genitive: The doctor’s arrival – The doctor has arrived, 3. Objective Genitive : The man’s release – The man was released, 4. Genitive of origin: the boy’s story – the boy told the story, 5. Descriptive Genitive: children’s books – books for children 6. Genitive of measure and partitive genitive: a mile’s distance, a day’s trip 7. Appositive genitive: the city of London.
Gender distinctions in English are marked for a limited number of nouns. In present-day English there are some morphemes which present differences between masculine and feminine (waiter – waitress, widow – widower). This distinction is not grammatically universal. It is not characterized by a wide range of occurrences and by a grammatical level of abstraction. Only a limited number of words are marked as belonging to masculine, feminine or neuter. The morpheme on which the distinction between masculine and feminine is based in English is a word- building morpheme, not form-building.
The question is whether the article is a separate part of speech (i.e. a word) or a word-morpheme. If we treat the article as a word, we shall have to admit that English has only two articles - the and a/an. But if we treat the article as a word- morpheme, we shall have three articles - the, a/an, ø.
In contrast to countables, restricted uncountables are used with two indefinite articles: a/an and zero. The role of the indefinite article is to individuate a subamount of the entity which is presented here as an aspect (type, sort) of the...
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