Business Studies Report
- The following report is selected to discover and explain the motivational theory know as Theory Z. Theory Z is a motivation theory which was discovered and created by Dr. William Ouchi and is known as the so-called ‘Japanese Management’ style. Dr. William Ouchi’s theory Z was based on Dr. W. Edwards Deming's famous "14 points". Deming was an American scholar whose management and motivation theories were rejected in the United States, he then went on to help lay the foundation of Japanese organizational development during their expansion in the world economy in the 1980s, from there on this is where Dr William Ouchi created the motivational theory ‘Theory Z’
Here I have created a timeline of the motivational theories to show how they have evolved.
1943 – Abraham Maslow – A theory of Human Motivation. This is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs where there is a pyramid, at the bottom of the pyramid there is the physiological things required such as breathing, food, water. At the top there is the self-actualization, such as morality, creativity, problem solving. 1960 – Douglas McGregor – Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X and Theory Y consist of two very different types of management. Theory X believes that no one enjoys work and employees are lazy and require force so their work it complete. Theory Y believes that people enjoy work and has a friendlier atmosphere. McGregor also combined his theory with Maslow’s in saying the bottom half of the triangle was Theory X needs and the top half was Theory Y needs. 1980 – Dr. William Ouchi – Theory Z. This theory is fairly recent and has developed from all of the theories. Dr. William Ouchi has combined all the motivational theories and created the theory Z, this theory is what I will be doing my report on.
In the 1970s and 1980s, many United States industries lost market share to international competitors, particularly Japanese companies. Concerns about the competitiveness of U. S. companies led some to examine Japanese management practices for clues to the success enjoyed by many of their industries. This led to many articles and books purporting to explain the success of Japanese companies. It was in this atmosphere that Theory Z was introduced into the management lexicon.
Theory Z’s main attributes consist of combined motivational theories. This theory makes assumptions that the workers tend to want to build happy and intimate working relationships. Theory Z also states that theory Z workers need to be supported by the company and they highly value a working environment. These workers have a very well developed sense of order, discipline and an obligation to work hard. Unlike McGregor’s Theory X workers, Theory Z employees can be trusted and to work hard so long as their managers can be trusted to support them according to Ouchi’s Theory Z. I will be focusing on applying this theory to the workforce in the Holiday centre as the organisation’s communication is not of a good standard as well as the company being unorganised.
This Theory fits the organisation I have chosen as the within this workplace there needs to be good working relationships as well as trust, yet there still needs to be discipline and an obligation to work hard. The organisation that I am fitting this theory to is a Holiday Park’s swimming pool located in a rural town.
Within the workplace of the Holiday Park’s Swimming pool sector, there are issues between the pool managers and the staff (lifeguards) on poolside. The pool managers have adopted Douglas McGregor’s Theory Y motivation theory. The pool managers have built strong relationships with the staff so therefore making it difficult for the pool managers to come across as strict. William Ouchi’s theory Z motivation theory is suitable for this situation as it combines strong relationships between staff, like a ‘clan culture’ but the theory still retains some elements of...
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