COURSE TITLE – Conservation and Restoration of
Buildings. (Arch. 843)
Msc./ Env. Design/ 44050/ 2012-2013
Msc./ Env. Design/ 44068/ 2012-2013
Msc./ Env. Design/ 21874/ 2012-2013
Msc./ Env. Design/ 44227/ 2012-2013
Msc./ Env. Design/ 44228/ 2012-2013
Continuity with Change, edited by Mark Fram and
John Weiler. (planning for the conservation of man
Structural Aspects of Building Conservation. (Paul
Beckmann and Robert Bowles)
Conservation is very essential to the history of man.
Conservation provides an understanding of how
buildings, towns, roads, countryside, are
It shows the traces of the struggles, ambitions,
successes, and failures of our predecessors.
For a building to be safe and useable its structural
parts must remain stationary, this requires that the
forces acting on them are equal and opposite. (as
shown on the plate below).
Structural performance is ascertained through the
process known as structural appraisal.
It is aimed at how information is obtained, about
the physical facts of the structure and is assessed so
as to check the structural adequacy of the
This is the most durable traditional means of
Masonry is the form of construction that exhibits
the greatest differences in the way it responds to
imposed forces of different kinds (e.g. compression
ASSESSMENT OF STRENGTH
For every building or structure that is to be conserved it strength must be assessed through the following below;
Codes of Practice, Empirical Formulae and Local
Testing of Material Samples
Testing of Masonry Samples
In-situ Strength Testing
Timber is usually termed as the first building material
This is so because the cave man had contract with it
first due to trees around him.
Timber is a material that is easy to work with because
it is light and because it is a natural material.
Timber can be strengthened by metals, ties and plates .
Another method could also be Resin-based Reinforcement
Improving Stability and Robustness of timber
Crossing steel ties can be a convenient way of overcoming
the shortfall, if their appearance can be tolerated, and as
long as fire considerations do not dictate otherwise.
Precaution Against Fire
Adequate means of escape
Protection of thin structural members.
Protection of heavy structural members and/or
connections of such, which have metal
Precaution Against Biological Degradation
IRON AND STEEL
In past, iron was produced from the ore by
repeated heating and hammering to physically
remove impurities (as in the picture below).
FIRE PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES
Iron and steel are incombustible. It does however
mean that buildings with iron or steel structures
are inherently safe in a fire.
The behavior of the metals in a fire is governed,
not by the temperature of the flames, but by the
temperature attained by the metals themselves.
STRENGTHEN AND REPAIR TECHNIQUES
Preserving the Historical Evidence
Limitations imposed by the Properties of the Materials
Bolt-on Strengthening Devices
Welded Strengthening Devices
Adhesive-bonded Fiber Composites
External Strengthening Devices
Creating Composite Action
Stitching’ of Cracked Cast Iron
Improving Stability and Robustness
CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE
Concrete is a man-made material consisting of
sand, stones and binders, this could be lime,
pozollana or Portland, as in the case of today.
REPAIR AND STRENGTHEN TECHNIQUES
a) Loose concrete has to be removed by manual hacking, pneumatic hammering and/or grit blasting.
(b) All rust is cleaned off the reinforcement, exposed by either down to bare metal, or by grit...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document