a) What is meant by a load path?
A load path is the transfer of loads and forces from the through the building to the bottom of the building, following the most direct structural path.
b) Sketch an example of a load path from roof cladding to foundation for a brick veneer dwelling with trussed roof. Label clearly and indicate the load path with arrows. Diagram 1.b
Outline the roles of the following people in the design of a building:
Architect: design the building and supervise construction and cost. Service engineer: design layouts and requirements for Environmental, Heating, ventilation, air conditioning, electrical and hydraulic Draftspersons: draws the plans
Give definitions (in your own words) of the following and give an example of each:
A load is a force which are applied to a structure in any direction
Support reaction is how much load force there will be needed on a part of the structure to keep the load supported.
Ductility when a material is not rigid and can move when loads are applied to them will deflect and stretch without failing.
Tensile strength is measured in mega Pascals it is the strength of the materials against failure under pulling of the load.
Pressure is the force of the load over an area.
Structural elements are the building materials that support the building from falling down e.g. columns, bracing ply, wall cladding.
Imagine you are at a party. There are lots of people packed into a room, and you estimate that the average mass of each person is 70 kg, and the average space that each person is occupying measures about 500 mm by 500 mm. a) Express this live load in kPa. Convert this to a load in kN/m on a single joist (joist spacing 450mm).
70kgx9.8m/s2 = 686
.5mx.5m = .25
= 2744 Pascals
= 2.744 kPa
2.744 kPa x .5m
Estimate the dead load of the flooring (19 mm thick T & G hardwood flooring, unit weight 9.0 kN/m3) in kN/m on a single joist, where the joist spacing is 450mm.
= 0.08 Kn/m
The joist spans 1800 mm between bearers as shown. The size of the joist is 100 mm x 50 mm, unit weight 10 kN/m3. Determine the approximate DL plus LL that is supported by the bearer, A, from this single joist. Dead load of bearer .15x.075x1x10Kn/m3
= .11 Kn/m
Live load of one joist .1x.05x1.8x10 Kn/m3
= .09 Kn
Draw a FBD of the bearer above as a beam with point loads applied through the joists. Diagram 4.d The diagram shows point loads of .08kN/m along a joist with supports at each end.
The bearer measures150 mm x 75 mm and has a unit weight of 10 kN/m3. How much load (DL + LL) is transferred into one of the pier supports?
Dead load of bearer .15x.075x1.8x10 Kn/m3
= .20 Kn
Flooring 1.8x1.8x.019x9 Kn/m3 = .55 Kn Joist 4x1.8x.09 = .65 Kn Total live load on pier
.2+.55+.65 =1.4 Kn per Pier
The footing under this pier has dimensions 300x 300 x300 deep. What is the pressure applied to the soil due to the above load? How does this compare with an allowable bearing capacity of 100 kPa? Does this allow for a reasonable factor...
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