Bluetooth Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Topics: Bluetooth, Wireless, Computer network Pages: 18 (6034 words) Published: August 14, 2012
Bluetooth Based Wireless Sensor Networks –Implementation Issues and Solutions Srdjan Krco Applied Research Lab, Ericsson Ireland Invited paper Abstract – Wireless sensor networks – networks of small devices equipped with sensors, microprocessor and wireless communication interfaces – are a technology that has gained a lot of interest lately. The broad spectrum of new and interesting applications, ranging from personal health-care to environmental monitoring and military applications, is proposed for such networks. Various wireless technologies, like simple RF, Bluetooth, UWB or infrared might be used for communication between sensors. In this paper the main principles, applications and issues of Bluetooth based wireless sensor networks, as well as an implementation of a simple Bluetooth based sensor network are described. The main problems experienced during the implementation and applied solutions are presented. hardware resources [4], [5], [6], [7] and efficient communication protocols [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], to enable networking and collaboration of smart sensor nodes. In the next section the main principles of wireless sensor networks are given and research issues are explained. Section 3 presents Bluetooth issues related to its use in sensor networks. An implementation of a Bluetooth based sensor network is described in section 4 along with some of the implementation issues and solutions. Section 5 concludes the paper.

2. Wireless sensor networks
Wireless sensor networks comprise number of small devices equipped with a sensing unit, microprocessor, wireless communication interface and power source. In contrast to the traditional sensor networks that are carefully planned and deployed to the predetermined positions, wireless sensor networks can be deployed in an ad-hoc manner. Of course, such deployment requires adequate communication protocols that are able to organize the network automatically, without the need for human intervention. Beside self-organization capability, another important feature of wireless sensor networks is collaboration of network nodes during the task execution. In contrast to the traditional sensor networks where all sensor data is gathered at a server and then analysed and fused, data processing and fusion is now performed by smart nodes themselves. Each node processes raw measurement data in order to decrease amount of data sent over wireless links and forwards only relevant parts to nodes responsible for data fusion. Data-centric nature of the network is yet another specific characteristic of wireless sensor networks. As deployment of smart sensor nodes is not planned in advance and positions of nodes in the field are not determined, it could happen that some sensor nodes end in such positions that they either cannot perform required measurement or the error probability is high. That is why a redundant number of smart nodes observing the same phenomenon is deployed in the field. These nodes then communicate, collaborate and share data, thus ensuring better results (each sensor has its own view of the phenomenon – when these views are combined a better picture of the phenomenon is obtained). Having this in mind, it is more reasonable for a user to send a data request to all sensors monitoring the phenomenon than to send it to one specific sensor node. Using a multicast routing protocol to send messages to all relevant nodes would require unique addressing scheme in the network. However, due to the sheer number of sensors and user requirements (user needs

1. Introduction
In [1], a vision, called ubiquitous computing, of the world where humans and computers were seamlessly united is described. The essence of the vision was the creation of environments saturated with computing and communication in an unobtrusive way. Recently, WWRF (Wireless World Research Forum) and ISTAG (IST Advisory Group) released their visions of the future communication networks [2], [3]. Both...

References: [1] Mark Weiser, “The Computer for the Twenty-First Century”, Scientific American, 1991. [2] Wireless World Research Forum, “Book of Visions”, [3] Scenarios for Ambient Intelligence, EU IST Advisory Group [4] [5] J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz and K. S. J. Pister, "Mobile Networking for Smart Dust", ACM/IEEE Intl. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 99), Seattle, WA, August 17-19, 1999. [6] G.J. Pottie, W.J. Kaiser, “Wireless Integrated Network Sensors”, Communications of the ACM, May 2000, Vol. 43, No. 5 [7] J.M. Rabaey, M.J. Ammer, J.L. da Silva Jr., D. Patel, S. Roundy, “PicoRadio Supports Ad Hoc Ultra-Low Power Wireless Networking", IEEE Computer Magazine, July 2000 [8] J. Hill, R. Szewczyk, A. Woo, S. Hollar, D. Culler, K. Pister, “System Architecture Directions for Networked Sensors”, Proceedings of the ASPLOS 2000 [9] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan and D. Estrin, “Directed diffusion: A scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks”, Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCOM '00), August 2000, Boston, Massachussetts [10] W. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, “Adaptive Protocols for Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE Mobicom Conference, Seattle, WA, August, 1999 [11] D. Braginsky, D. Estrin, “Rumor Routing Algorithm for Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the Int. Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS-22), November 2001 [12] W. Ye, J. Heidemann, D. Estrin, “An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the Infocom 02, New York June 2002
[13] K. Sohrabi, J. Gao, V. Ailawadhi, G.J. Pottie, “Protocols for self-organization of a wireless sensor network”, IEEE Personal Communications, October 2000 [14] C. Shen, C. Srisathapornphat, C. Jaikeeo, “Sensor information networking architecture and applications”, IEEE Personal Communications, August 2001 [15] N. Bulusu, D. Estrin, L. Girod, J. Heidemann, “Scalable coordination for wireless sensor networks: selfconfiguring localization systems”, International Symposium on Communication Theory and Applications (ISCTA 2001), Ambleside, UK, July 2001. [16] J.M. Kahn, R.H. Katz, K.S.J. Pister, “Next century challenges: mobile networking for smart dust”, Proceedings of the ACM MobiCom’99, Washington, USA, 1999, pp. 271–278. [17] N. Noury, T. Herve, V. Rialle, G. Virone, E. Mercier, G. Morey, A. Moro, T. Porcheron, “Monitoring behavior in home using a smart fall sensor”, IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology, October 2000, pp. 607–610. [18] B.G. Celler et al., “An instrumentation system for the remote monitoring of changes in functional health status of the elderly”, International Conference IEEE-EMBS, New York, 1994, pp. 908–909. [19] G. Coyle et al., “Home telecare for the elderly”, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 1 (1995) 183–184. [20] P. Bonnet, J. Gehrke, P. Seshadri, “Querying the physical world”, IEEE Personal Communications (October 2000) 10–15. [21] Cerpa, J. Elson, M. Hamilton, J. Zhao, “Habitat monitoring: application driver for wireless communications technology”, ACM SIGCOMM’2000, Costa Rica, April 2001. [22] [23] [24] V. Mehta, M. El Zarki, “Fixed Sensor Networks for Civil Infrastructure Monitoring – An Initial Study”, Proceedings of the Medhoc 02, Sardegna, Italy, September 2002 [25] D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, S. Kumar, “Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks”, ACM MobiCom’99, Washingtion, USA, 1999 [26] D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, “Embedding the Internet”, Communication ACM 43 (2000) [27] C. Perkins, “Ad Hoc Networking”, Addison Wesley 2001. [28] B. Krishnamachari, D. Estrin, S. Wicker, “Modelling Data-Centric Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proc. of the IEEE Infocom 02, New York, June 2002 [29] Bluetooth specification, [30] T. Salonidis, P. Bhagwat, L. Tassiulas, R. LaMaire, “Distributed Topology Construction of Bluetooth Personal Area Networks” [31] N. Johansson, F. Alriksson, U. Jönsson, “JUMP Mode A Dynamic Window-based Scheduling Framework for Bluetooth Scatternets”, Proceeding of the Mobicom 2001, Rome, Italy, July 2001 [32] [33] [34] JSR-82 JAVA API for Bluetooth Wireless Technology,
[35] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey”, Computer Networks 38, Elsevier, 2002 [36] G. Asada, M. Dong, T.S. Lin, F. Newberg, G. Pottie, W.J. Kaiser, and H.O. Marcy, “Wireless Integrated Network Sensors: Low Power Systems on a Chip”, Proceedings of the 1998 European Solid State Circuits Conference. Invited Paper [37] Oliver Kasten, Marc Langheinrich, “First Experiences with Bluetooth in the Smart-Its Distributed Sensor Network”, 2nd International Workshop on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, Sept. 2001, Barcelona [38] P. Bonnet, J. E. Gehrke, P. Seshadri, “Towards Sensor Database Systems”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Mobile Data Management. Hong Kong, January 2001.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Bluetooth Based Smart Sensor Network Essay
  • Wireless Sensor Network Essay
  • Essay on Wireless Sensor Network
  • Bluetooth Based Smart Senor Networks Essay
  • wireless sensors networks Research Paper
  • Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Essay
  • Wireless Sensor Networks Essay
  • Bluetooth Based Smart Sensor Networks Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free