Wireless Application Protocol
Muhammad Mahboob Elahi(BS Electronics-5th semester)
Samiullah Babar(BS Electronics-5th semester)
Farooq Baig(BE Electronics-5th semester)
While the evolution of cellular networks has resulted in many mobile services, such services are primarily for voice. Mobile phone users do have the desire to access the Internet. However, Internet protocols are not designed to operate efficiently over mobile networks. WAP, the standard developed by the WAP forum, addresses these issues nicely by adapting to the restrictions of the wireless network – low bandwidth, small display, limited input facilities, limited memory and CPU, and less connection stability. WAP interfaces with different entities through the use of a gateway/proxy and a set of lightweight data presentation/formatting scripts. Such scripts allow information to be formatted in such a manner that is suitable for transmission over wireless and for presentation on a small wireless device with limited display capability. In this paper, I will deal with the overall WAP model and architecture. .
Key Words- Wireless Application Protocol BEE-5 IIHE.
While the evolution of cellular networks has resulted in many mobile services, such services are primarily for voice. Mobile phone users do have the desire to access the Internet. Hence, efforts were made to enhance the capability of mobile phones and devices. WAP is an open protocol for wireless multimedia messaging. WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) allows the design of advanced, interactive, and real-time mobile services, such as mobile banking or Internet-based news and travel services.  The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) refers to a group of related technologies and protocols widely used as a de-facto standard protocol in providing Internet access to mobile phones or other thin-client devices.  Internet protocols are not designed to operate efficiently over mobile networks. Standard HTML web content cannot be displayed fully on the small-size screens of wireless devices, pagers, and mobile phones. WAP addresses these issues nicely. WAP is a license-free wireless protocol standard that can bring data information and telephony services to wireless devices.  In the mid 1990s, Ericsson made advances in value-added services on the mobile networks through the creation of the Intelligent Terminal Transfer Protocol (ITTP). Nokia and others, however, made advances in device user interfaces, such as Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML) and HDTP (Handheld Device Transport Protocol). HDTP can be viewed as a new, lightweight protocol optimized for client/server transactions over wireless links. Further, Nokia again made advancement through the introduction of the smart short message services (SMS) concept, which allows GSM users to access services present in the Internet. With such fragmentation of effort by different companies, a joint effort for a widely acceptable standard became a necessity. Hence, WAP was born. 
The WAP Forum dates from 1997. It aimed primarily to bring together the various wireless technologies in a standardized protocol. In 2002 the WAP Forum was consolidated (along with many other forums of the industry) into OMA (Open Mobile Alliance), which covers virtually everything in future development of wireless data services.  2.1. WAP 1.X
The WAP 1.0 standard, released in April 1998, described a complete software stack for mobile internet access. WAP version 1.1 came out in 1999. WAP 1.2, the final update of the 1.X series was released in June 2000. The most important addition in version 1.2 was WAP push. 
2.2. WAP Push
WAP Push has been incorporated into the specification to allow WAP content to be pushed to the mobile handset with minimum user intervention. A WAP Push is basically a specially encoded message which includes a link to a WAP address. [pic]
Figure 1. WAP Push Process
References:  http://crystal.uta.edu/~kumar/cse6392/termpapers/Ihlee_paper.pdf
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