BIO 236 AP II
Chapter 14 Blood
1. Define the following word parts.
agglutin- to glue together leuko-white bil- bile -osis abnormal condition embol- stopper -poie make,produce erythr- red -stasis halt, make stand Hema- or Hemo-blood thromb- clot
2. What is the function of blood? Transport nutrients,oxygen,wastes,& hormones, helps maintain the stability of the interstitial fluid and distributes heat.
3. Answer these questions concerning the volume and composition of blood.
List the solid elements of blood red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets
What is the blood volume of the average-sized (70 kg) male? 10780
What part of blood tissue is the plasma? About 55%
What is plasma made up of, include the gases, nutrients, and the proteins and their function? Approx. 92% water, amino acids, proteins, carbs, lipids, vitamins, hormones,electrolytes, cellular wastes.
PROTEINS: albumin-help maintain colloid osmotic pressure. Globulin-alpha & beta-transports lipids & fat soluable vitamins, gamma-constitute the antibodies of immunity. Fibrinogen-play a key role in blood coagulation GASES: oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen
ELECTROLYTES: sodium, potassium,calcium,magnesium,chloride, bicarbonate,phosphate&sulfate ions- keep blood stable; maintain the osmotic pressure &pH. NUTRIENTS: simple sugars, amino acids & lipids-glucose stored in liver as glycogen & is released whenever the blood glucose level falls. Amino acids-are used to synthesize proteins & are deaminated for use as energy sources. Lipoproteins transport liids.
Answer these questions concerning red blood cells.
4. Describe the shape of a red blood cell and explain how the shape enhances its function. Bioconcave discs, thin near center thicker around rim. Increases surface area for transporting gases.
5. Why does a red blood cell lack a nucleus? To make more room for hemoglobin.
6. What is the normal red blood cell blood cell count for a man? 4,600,000-6,200,000 cells per microliter
A woman? 4,200,000-5,400,000 cells per microliter
7. What factors provoke a normal increase in red blood cells? Several days of strenuous exercise or an increase in altitude.
8. What dietary factors influence red blood cell production? Availability of B-complex vitamins B12 & folic acid increase RBC production. Iron is required for hemoglobin synthesis.
9. Where are red blood cells produced? Initially in the yolk sac, liver & spleen. After birth, from the hematopoietic stem cells in the red bone marrow.
10. How is the production of red blood cells controlled? Through negative feedback mechanism using the hormone erythropoietin(EPO).
11. How does sickle cell disease affect red blood cell production? The base DNA mutates causing hemoglobin to crystalize in low oxygen environment, the cell then bends & gets stuck & blocks the flow in small blood vessels.
12. How long does a red blood cell usually live? On average 120 days.
13. What are damaged red blood cells destroyed by? The liver and spleen.
14. List and describe the types of white blood cells (wbc). Including their functions and the percentage of total wbc they make up. Neutrophils-(54-62%)fight infection;phagocytize bacteria,fungi & some viruses. Eosinophils-(1-3%)moderate allergic reactions & defend against parasitic worm infestation. Basophils-(less than 1%)promotes inflammation & increases blood flow to injured tissues. Monocytes-(3-9%)phagocytize bacteria,dead cells & other debris in the tissues. Lymphocytes-(25-33%)immunity/antibodies.
15. What is a normal white cell count? 4,500-10,000 per microliter of blood.
16. What causes an increase or decrease in white blood cells? Typhoid fever, influenza, measles, mumps, chickenpox, poliomyelitis, tapeworm or hookwork infestation.
Leukemia & AIDS
17. What is a differential white blood cell count? It lists the percentages of the various types of leukocytes in a blood sample.
18. Describe the structure and function of platelets. They are not complete cells, rather fragments. Don’t have a nucleus. Half the size of a RBC. They help control blood loss from broken vessels.
19. List the mechanisms of hemostasis and the major events in the blood-clotting mechanism.
-blood vessels spasm
-platelet plug formation
-blood coagulation occurs
20. How is a platelet plug formed? Platelets adhere to rough surfaces and to each other forming a plug.
21. What is a thrombus? What is an embolus?
Thrombus-a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel.
Embolus-a clot that dislodges, or a fragment of a clot that breaks loose and is carried away by the blood flow.
Blood Groups and Transfusions
22. What are antigens (agglutinogens) and antibodies (agglutinins) and where are they found antigens-chemicals that stimulates B lymphocytes to produce antibodies. Found in A,B, A and B, not O. Antibodies- proteins,specifically an immunoglobin, that B cells of the immune system produce in response to a nonself antigen; it reacts w/the antigen. Found in A=anti-B, B=anti-A, O has anti-A&B, not in AB.
23. Describe each of the ABO blood types (you may include a drawing, if you wish). Type A blood= only antigen A, anti-B
Type B blood=only antigen B, anti-A
Type AB blood= both antigen A & antigen B, Neither anti-A nor anti-B Type O blood= neither antigen A nor antigen B, Has both anit-A & anti-B
24. Why is it unsafe to mix different blood types? What will happen? Because a transfusion reaction can occur. Adverse reactions are due to agglutination(clumping) of the RBC; recipient will reject the blood.
25. What is the Rh factor and how does it differ from A, B, and O antigens?
Rh antigens & antigen D present in Rh-positve, No Rh antigens=Rh negative. It differs from A,B, & O- during development of fetus can attack the mothers, and a Rh person can receive 1 transfusion w/o adverse affects.
26. How does a fetus develop erythroblastosis fetalis?
Anti-Rh antibodies in the materal blood pass through the placental tissues & react w/the RBC of an Rh-positve fetus.
27. Play the blood typing game.
1) Go to www.nobelprize.org
2) Click on educational games at the top
3) Click on Nobel Prize for medicine
4) Scroll down and choose “Play the Blood Typing game”
5) Follow the directions and have fun while you quiz yourself on how well you know the blood types.
How well did you do? They would of died by time I made the decision, but had ALL correct answers when I finally did pick out the blood! (