Topics: DNA, Biotechnology, Bacteria Pages: 6 (1773 words) Published: September 10, 2013
We discussed 17 topics regarding about biotechnology. The first topic is about the history of biotechnology. Biotechnology began 7000 BC. It is the application of scientific engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. It is also a technique that uses living organisms (or parts of organisms) to make or modify products, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses. Karl Ereky is the one who coined biotechnology in ancient time.

There are 3 stages of biotechnology, these are:
* Ancient Biotechnology
* Classical Biotechnology
* Modern Biotechnology

This is about the 3 Stages; they are Ancient, Classical, and Modern biotechnology which are today. In Ancient biotechnology involves early civilization. Some of the earliest example of biotechnology is the domestication of plants and animals. Domestication began over 10,000 years ago when our ancestors started keeping plants as a reliable source of food. Rice, barley and wheat were among the first domesticated plants. Wild animals were tamed to provide milk or meat or help with plugging or guarding the farm. The dog, sheep and goat are thought to be among the first animals that were domesticated. Then the Classical biotechnology which follows ancient biotechnology in which stage makes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation, and last is the modern biotechnology. In this time, many methods are developed through classical biotechnology are widely used today. In short amount of time, large quantities of food products and other materials are produced. There are the peoples involved in the history of Biotechnology. They are Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, Gregor Mendel, Johann Friedrich Miescher, Walter Sutton, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Ernst Ruska, Alexander Fleming, Rosalind Elsie Franklin, Watson and Crick, Norman Borlaug, Mary Claire King, Ian Wilmut and other scientist who contributed in the field of biotechnology.

Products produced by biotechnology:
* Cheese
* Yeast
* Vinegar
* Antibiotics
* And others

Next is the Principles of Biotechnology which are Biological controls, Biosensors, Biotreatment, Biorestoration, Phytoremediation, and Bioprocessing. These are all means of using biotechnology to clean or protect the environment. Next is the Classical Biotechnology which refers to produce large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time. Some produced products of biotechnology are alcohol, Vinegar, Explosives & Organic solvents, Organic acids, Vaccines & Monoclonal Antibodies. Also there’s a method called Wastewater treatment which covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use .

Next is Modern biotechnology term used to describe a range of processes and techniques, focusing on   the genetic level, such as molecular marking, genetic modification and   genomics. Modern Biotechnology is manipulated by genetic materials within organisms; it is based on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, and other related sciences and technologies. Modern Biotechnology often knows as genetic engineering.

These are examples of Modern Biotechnology. The examples areTissue culture, Genetic engineering, Recombinant DNA techniques, Mutagenesis, Drugs, Antibiotics. Some products produced by modern biotechnology are Cheese, Bread, Beer, Sausages.

Next is Artificial Insemination which refers to is the deliberate introduction of semen into a female's vagina or oviduct for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through fertilization by means other than ejaculation. is the injection of semen from a male into a vagina of a female by a chosen tool. In the year 1938, cattle in the U.S. were the first commercially used artificial insemination....
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