biology definitions completed worksheet

Topics: Glucose, Carbohydrate, Disaccharide Pages: 3 (675 words) Published: February 12, 2015
Definitions
Alpha glucose- is an isomer. The hydroxyl group is attached facing down and away from the main structure.

Beta glucose- is an isomer except the hydroxyl group is attached above the ring and on the first carbon.

Fructose- a sugar of the hexose class, and is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

Sucrose- Sucrose is a sugar, the organic compound commonly known as table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar or, usually, just sugar. 

Galactose-  is a monosaccharide sugar that is less sweet than glucose and fructose. It is a C-4 epimer of glucose. Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose found in hemicellulose.

Lactose- is a disaccharide sugar derived from galactose and glucose that is found in milk. Maltose-  is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α bond, formed from a condensation reaction. The isomer isomaltose has two glucose molecules linked through an α bond.

Amylose- Amylose is a spiral polymer made up of D-glucose units. This polysaccharide is one of the two components of starch, making up approximately 20-30% of the structure. The other component is amylopectin, which makes up 70–80% of the structure.

Amylase- an enzyme, found chiefly in saliva and pancreatic fluid, that converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars.

Condensation- is water which collects as droplets on a cold surface when humid air is in contact with it.

Hydrolysis- the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.

Monosaccharide- any of the class of sugars (e.g. glucose) that cannot be hydrolysed to give a simpler sugar.

Dissacharide- any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues.

Monomer- a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

Polymer- a substance which has a molecular structure built up chiefly or completely from a large number of similar...
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