Ap Bio Notes

Topics: Protein, Amino acid, DNA Pages: 3 (728 words) Published: July 7, 2014
Chapter 3 Molecules of Life
I. Carbon
1. 6 electrons- (4 valence) has the ability to bond with 4 other elements 2. Hydrocarbons- (contains only C & H)
3. Asymmetric carbon- attached to 4 different atoms or groups of atoms

II. Isomers - Compounds having the same molecular formula but different structure and properties 1. Structural- differ in covalent arrangement of their atoms and may differ in location of double bonds 2. Geometric- same structure different arrangement

3. Enantiomer/stereoisomer
1. Usually one is biologically active and the other is not
2. Pharmaceuticals- important because often one of the isomer is not as effective or could produce harmful effects (thalidomide)

III. Polymers – Macromolecule of many identical or similar subunits (monomers) a. Condensation synthesis- process by which links monomers into polymers 1. 1 water molecule is removed for each monomer added (one monomer loses a hydroxyl group and the other loses a hydrogen so that they are then able to bond covalently to each other) 2. Enzymes are needed

3. Energy is expended by both monomers
4. Anabolic – building blocks
5. Also known as a dehydration reaction
b. Hydrolysis – process which separates polymers into monomers 1. 1 water molecule is added (hydrogen attaches to one monomer and the hydroxyl group attaches to the other monomer) 2. Digestion is an example

3. Catabolic

IV. Carbohydrates – Sugars and their polymers (name often ends in –ose) a. Monosaccharides - one monomer
1. Usually multiples of CH2O
2. Aldose- Sugar with aldehyde
3. Ketose- Sugar with ketone
4. Glucose, fructose, galactose

b. Disaccharides- Double sugar with 2 monomers joined together by a glycosidic linkage (covenant bond) 1. Maltose – 2 Glucose
2. Sucrose - Glucose & Fructose
3. Lactose - Glucose & Galctose

c. Polysaccharides / Oligosaccharides – few sugars joined together 1. Starch in plants
2. Glycogen – vertebrates store this in muscles and liver, short...
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