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Biology
1. Outline the process of DNA profiling (genetic fingerprinting), including ways in which it can be used. 6 marks
• sample of DNA obtained / leucocytes / from mouthwash / hair / other named source
• satellite DNA / repetitive sequences used for profiling
• amplification of DNA by polymerase chain reaction / PCR
• cutting DNA into fragments using restriction enzymes
• separation of fragments of DNA (by electrophoresis)
• separation according to the length of the fragments
• pattern of bands obtained / different pattern of bands with DNA from different individuals
• used for criminal investigations / example of use in criminal investigation
• used to check paternity / who is the father / mother / parent
• used to check whether two organisms are clones
2. Discuss whether genetic screening should be carried out for sickle cell,anemia and other diseases. 4 marks.

3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of genetic screening. 8 marks.
Genetic testing can cause either a feeling of relief or anxiety, depending on the outcome of the test results. Ultimately, testing provides individuals with an opportunity to seek genetic counselling so that the risk of inheriting a genetic disease may be reduced. Testing can lessen the anxiety of not knowing the possibility of developing a disease and provide a tremendous sense of relief once a definitive test result is given. An individual who chooses to undergo testing has the opportunity to seek medical help, prepare for, and possibly help prevent, a genetically caused condition. Testing can help people to make more informed decisions about their future.
Unfortunately, several negative consequences may result from genetic testing as well. Once a person has tested positive for a disease or condition, he or she risks stigmatization, loss of health or life insurance, loss of employment or educational opportunities and possibly can lose the ability to adopt a child. Privacy of other family members is

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