Basic Psycology

Topics: Operant conditioning, Classical conditioning, Reinforcement Pages: 9 (2069 words) Published: June 3, 2013
Learning & Memory

1. Learning

Learning = relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience

1. Learning
• Definition implies learning takes place when there is change in behaviour • But changes in behaviour do not always mean learning has taken place • If we look at the definition the changes has to be permanent • This means it has to be long lasting as a result of experience • Most human behaviour is learned behaviour

• We will discuss 3 types of learning:
a) Associative learning = learning takes place by associating one event with another b) Cognitive learning = learning that involves thinking
c) Social learning = refers to the way we acquire social behaviour

1.1.1 Associative learning
❖ If someone says: “I do not mind the heat, I’ve gotten used to it” - it means their body learned to adjust to the heat (has become conditioned) ❖ Conditioning = kind of learning that happens on an automatic level ❖ We do not deliberately learn a conditioned response ❖ It occurs because of a spontaneous or automatic association of one event or stimulus to another ❖ Key is te pairing of a association of a stimulus with a response

1. Classical conditioning
← Classical conditioning = refers to learning that takes place when response elicited by one stimulus is associated with a different stimulus that would not normally lead to that response ← Read about Pavlov’s experiment p. 153

← Humans can also learn through classical conditioning (example p. 154) ← Elements of classical conditioning can be broken up as follows:

|ELEMENT |DESCRIPTION |EXAMPLE | |Unconditioned stimulus |This is the stimulus that causes the subject to respond in a|The food is the unconditioned stimulus – right form | | |specific way before any learning has taken place |beginning the food caused the dogs to salivate | |Unconditioned response |The response to an unconditioned stimulus |Dogs automatically produce saliva when they see or | | | |smell food – salivation is not a learned response | |Conditioned stimulus |Stimulus that is initially neutral but through association |Bell is the conditioned stimulus – at first the bell | | |may present a desired response when presented without the |didn’t produce the dogs to salivate – but when it was | | |unconditioned stimulus |presented before food the dogs became conditioned that| | | |the bell signalled that food was coming – after making| | | |the association the dogs would salivate when they | | | |heard the bell even when food was not presented | | | |The bell became the conditioned stimulus – dogs | | | |associated the bell with the food (unconditioned | | | |stimulus) | |Conditioned response |The response that follows the conditioned response |Salivation happened at first automatically in reaction| | |...
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