January 8th, 2014
Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing
Key Concepts in Psychological Testing
- Test norms
- Standardization group
- Correlation coefﬁcient
- Content validity (ex. Acadia entrance test thats only math based, not fair to all) - Criterion-related validity (ex. test is able to predict something important - Construct validity
Characteristics of a good test
- Reliability: test-retest (test again), split half (score of odd vs. score of even), internal consistency
- Validity: does a test measure what it is supposed to measure? content, predictive, construct
- Standardization: is the normative group appropriate?
- how does the score compare to an appropriate comparison group - WISC raw scores vary by age but not gender (in 4th edition) - Flynn effect: IQ scores are going up over the years, revised tests restandardize performance to adjust for this (about 3 points a decade)
Validity: Example of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)
- Face validity: Does the test make sense?
- Criterion validity: Does it predict University grades?
- Concurrent validity: Were they related to Grade 12 grades? - Construct validity: Does the SAT measure the construct it is supposed to measure? Measuring Individual Differences
Mental Ability Tests:
- Achievement Tests
- psychological tests that measure your current level of knowledge or competence in a particular subject
- Aptitude Tests:
- psychological tests that measure your general ability to learn and solve problems in a particular subject area
- Intelligence Tests:
- tests that evaluate your overall cognitive ability to learn and solve problems general aptitude can be seen as intelligence - Personality Tests - to be discussed in another chapter
Symons (1999): Aptitude prediction
- Criterion Validity of Graduate Record Exam Tests
- GRE scores are used to select students to conduct graduate work after a B.A or B.Sc - GRE scores > 50th percentile predicted ﬁnishing a degree “on time”, getting external awards, publishing a Master’s thesis
- Note: MCAT, LSAT, GRE are all aptitude tests for admission to medicine, law and graduate school
Who is the most intelligence person? (own opinion)
- Intelligence is really a subjective phenomenon
- some people may focus on creativity, basic knowledge, spatial skills, artistic ability, interpersonal intelligence, signs of success such as $$$
- Intelligence is the degree to which someone successfully adapts to an environment - Solving problems
- What is the environment?
- school or work? business?
- Individual differences
January 10th, 2014
Chapter 9: Continued - Intelligence
Another deﬁnition of intelligence:
an inferred characteristic usually deﬁned as the ability to proﬁt from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposely and adapt to changes in the environment. The Psychometric Approach
- “Measuring the mind”
- Francis Galton
- Around 1900 equated intelligence to sensory acuity, reaction time, grip strength
- He could not integrate these measures
- We do not think these things are “intelligence” any longer, but this contributed to the notion of measurement
- He believed we had speciﬁc(S1, etc) mental talents (visual processing, memory, word knowledge, all overlap. all listed as S1, S2, etc and where they overlap is G (general mental ability).
- Concluded that intelligence is made up of many separate abilities - According to his analysis we may have as many as 150 distinct mental abilities that can be characterized in terms of the operations, contents and products of intellectual activity (3D model)
- convergent (coming together) production
- divergent (coming apart) production
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