"Extinction" Essays and Research Papers


numbers of endangered species are still increase rapidly. However, there were still numbers of selfish people that did not even concern about the animal species that disappeared. Animal extinction can be defined as animal species no longer stay in the earth as it already disappeared. The factors that lead to animal extinction are irresponsible human’s hands that destroyed animal’s habitat by deforestation, illegal wildlife trades and climate change. Deforestation is the main causes that lead animal species...

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Animals Extinction

Animal extinction Animal extinction has been dramatically occurring and this is the biggest issue in the planet. The governments and scientists try to figure out the better ways to prevent and preserve the disappearance of animals. Human attitudes, degradation of nature and climate change are the causes that lead to animal extinction. I think that if these causes are still occurring without protection and preservation, the environment will become in less healthy state by 2050. The world human population...

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Animal in Extinction

Muhamad Naem Bin Yusof Title : Animal in Extinction SubTopic : Why the animal under verge of extinction Introduction In bucked the trend towards modernization and progress, we increasingly forget that not only human beings that inhabit this universe. Ever forget the existence of human animals and the environment so that most of us have succumbed to the demands of modernization and progress. Humans have killed the flora and fauna around us to make way for development. Implications...

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No to De Extinction

Ene European Literature Period 4 26 February 2015 No to De-Extinction           Whether it is bringing people back from the dead or resurrecting an entire extinct species, for hundreds of years, scientists everywhere have had the desire and craving to try and reverse nature’s kiss of death. Modern scientists are exploring the possibility of resurrecting species, that we and our ancestors led to extinction, through the process of de-extinction or also known as “resurrection biology”. Scientists believe...

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Brink of Extinction

Brink of Extinction In Malaysia today the survival of wildlife have taken second place to human activity. All major wildlife species are now threatened with extinction. Does saving these endangered species and taking necessary actions for those who are on the brink of extinction means anything to you? Most of us are not aware that our Malayan Tiger, Clouded Leopard (Roy Goh 2011), Pygmy Elephant, Sumatran Rhino, Orang-Utan and Turtles are in the under-extinction animals category...

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The Role Od Extinction in Evolution

The Role of Extinction in Evolution In contrast to the opposite phenomenon, speciation. This is surprising in view of the special importance Darwin attached to extinction, and because the number of species extinctions in the history of life is almost the same as the number of originations; present-day biodiversity is the result of a trivial surplus of originations, cumulated over millions of years. For an evolutionary biologist to ignore extinction is probably as foolhardy as for a demographer...

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Animal Extinction Paper

Animal Extinction Preventing Extinction Not much is thought about extinction in today’s society. One might argue that it is a small problem, and completely irrelevant; but according to statistics of scientific research, extinction is an important issue nationwide. Extinction of a species over time is undisputable, and inevitable; however, the burden of mankind on animals and their environment has caused extinction to increase severely...

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Preventing a Species from Extinction

Preventing a Species from Extinction Whether should people prevent a species from being extinct or not seems not a controversial topic. Nowadays, a lot of people will agree on protecting endangered species. However, most people still have some questions. Why should people prevent a species from extinction? Is it Important? What can humans get from protecting rare species? We can answer these questions from three aspects. People should prevent a species from extinction because humans have the responsibility...

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Causes of animal extinction

Animal extinction is happening nowadays due to the multiple factors of environmental degradation. The primary cause of environmental degradation is human disturbance. Extinctions caused by human are generally considered to be are recent phenomena. When humans convert wild areas for agriculture, forestry, urban development, or water projects including dams, hydropower, and irrigation, they reduce or eliminate its usefulness as a habitat for the other species that live there. The temperature...

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Clear Forest Cause Extinction of Wildlife

forest into non-forest sites, it occur due to developing country such as urbanization and to grow crops. Although, it can bring benefit to people and country but the negative impact can give serious effect to the surroundings, as it will causes extinction of animals, global warming and flooding. Factor of forest are been cleared is for urbanization. In addition, it can help to increase the popullation growth and improve in living areas. Urbanization also provide good infrastructure,...

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Mass Extinction

Extinction is the end of an organism or group of taxa.  Extinctions occur when a species becomes unfit for survival in its natural habitat usually to be replaced by another, better-suited species. An organism becomes ill-suited for survival because its environment is changed or because its relationship to other organisms is altered as stated from Credo Reference. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that particular species. Mass extinctions, however...

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Biology Extinction

In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species...

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Mass Extinction

Physical Geology Essay Assignment: Mass Extinctions Topic: The Cretaceous - Tertiary extinction Submitted by Suhaidee Yusoh ID No. 15240 Petroleum Geosciences UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction 1. Introduction Fastovsky, D.E. and Weishampel, D.B., 2005 defined the mass extinction “Mass extinctions involve large numbers of species and many types of species undergoing global extinction in a geologically short period of time”, organisms have gone extinct, certainly...

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Mass Extinctions Research Task

Mass Extinctions What is the biological significance of mass extinctions? PART A You are living in the 23rd century. All knowledge of scientific things have been hidden from the human race by evil dictators during the last 2 generations of humans. One brilliant scientist, Albert Einstein the 16th, has rebelled against the dictators. He has devised a time machine and is asking for volunteers to go back in time and bring back important scientific discoveries. Your assignment is to go back to...

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The Sixth Mass Extinction

The Sixth Mass Extinction The mass extinction of certain animal species and plants that is facing the Earth today has been compared to, although some scientists suspect worse than, the extinction of the dinosaurs. The annihilation of the dinosaurs was caused by the collision of a  large asteroid with the Earth. This current mass extinction, however, is different than any of the five mass extinctions that have been seen by the earth because this extinction is manmade, not natural. With the search...

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Dinosaur and Extinction

Extinction Extinction is the termination of evolutionary lineage. The most common extinction event is the loss of a species. There are many reasons why a species might die out. Human intervention (either directly or indirectly) has become the leading cause of species extinction (possibly for the last fifteen thousand years). Species and Populations An important distinction must be made between true extinction and extirpation. Extirpation is the loss of a population, or loss of a species...

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POL 310 Week 4 Discussion Questions 2 Biodiversity Extinction and Making Choices in Policy

Discussion Questions 2 Biodiversity, Extinction, and Making Choices in Policy contains answers on the following tasks: "Some people argue that since extinctions have always taken place, they should be considered a natural process and that the current extinction rates are not a matter of concern. Others point out that the preservation of biodiversity is essential to the continuation of life on Earth and that human actions have greatly accelerated the extinction rate. Should the policy process take...

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Dinosaur Extinction

BIOL2110- Vertebrate Zoology Word count: 1056 Dinosaur extinction: An analysis of events and theories that possibly led to the dinosaurs' demise. Ever since the history of Earth has been studied using fossil records, extinctions have always been the object of fascination and interest, particularly the mass extinctions that occurred throughout Earth's history. A mass extinction can be caused by disruptive global environmental changes, where large numbers of species have become extinct (Urry...

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Extinction of Dinosaurs

Extinction of Dinosaurs Two-hundred and thirty million years ago the first dinosaur-like creature roamed the earth. Dinosaurs were a very successful and diverse group, dominating the terrestrial environments of the earth for 160 million years. The apparently sudden mass extinction of dinosaurs marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. Though there is not one definitive explanation to explain dinosaurs' extinction, there are various theories that attempt to account for the...

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Essentials Of Ecology

ESSENTIALS OF ECOLOGY (Chapter 9) 1. Review the Key Questions and Concepts for this chapter on p. 184. What factors led to the premature extinction of the passenger pigeon in the United States? Factors that led to the premature extinction of the passenger pigeon are uncontrolled commercial hunting and habitat loss. Passenger pigeon in the 1858 became a big hunting business. Weapons like shotguns, traps and artilleries were used and even the burning of sulfur in suffocating the birds. These threats...

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prominent extinctions in last 100 years, and the causes behind these extinctions. May be going through the list will help us in realizing how wThe long list of extinct animals in the world features more than 50 animal species that have become extinct from the planet in last 100 years alone. This extinct animals list feature mammals, birds, reptiles as well as amphibians. Now let us have a detailed look at some of the prominent extinctions in last 100 years, and the causes behind these extinctions. May...

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Humans’ Moral Obligation to Preserve Endangered Species

Humans’ Moral Obligation to Preserve Endangered Species Many species that exists today are becoming endangered to extinction. In the past era where humans did not exist, extinction occurred due to natural causes. On this present time however, extinction of species are threatened by humans’ existence. Humans are the only moral agent; in which, it has the intellectual capacity that animals and plants do not have. Thus, humans are powerful and dominate over any species. Many practices that...

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Zoological Gardens

Are zoological gardens the best way of preventing the extinction of endangered species? In order for one to understand the positives and negatives of zoological gardens and their potential to prevent the extinction of endangered animals, they must firstly understand the key terms, ‘zoological gardens’ and ‘preventing the extinction of endangered species,’ so that they are able to construct a coherent and structured response, which builds upon arguments that are placed forward by academic sources...

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Dinosaur Extinction

A number of different theories have been assessed throughout the course of this research to attempt to reach a conclusion as to the reason behind the extinction of the Tyrannosaurus Rex. Although all arguments are credible, and supportive with educated information and data, the most conclusive theory of all is The Alvarez Asteroid Impact theory. Alvarez, a researcher at the University of California, discovered a pencil thin layer of Iridium around the rocks in Gubbio, Italy. (New Scientist,...

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and the ecosystem upon which they depend on. Since 1973 the Endangered Species Act has saved endangered and threatened species from extinction. The Endangered Species Act, also known as the ESA, is a list of approximately 2,195 endangered or threatened species. For a species to be considered endangered and listed onto the ESA, the species has to be in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range and considered threatened if it is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable...

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The Bad Effect That Human Cause to the Nature

such as global warming and greenhouse effect. Then, they lead to animal extinction, plant loss, and the disappearance of the habitat of many species. As a result, the rapid exhaustion of the Earth’s natural resources becomes the most important issue nowadays that will cause many consequences in nature. In a word, some of those bad effects that human activities cause to nature are change in climate, species extinction, and marine ecosystem damage. Body Climate change ...

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Phobias and Addiction : Classic and Op

conditioning. The addict will learn that doing the drug, going to a place to get the drugs and/or associated with people who have the drugs (the conditioned stimulus) leads to feeling good. To help people with phobias and addiction extinction is often necessary. Extinction is a method of relearning behavior. This cannot be done all at once because it can lead to anxiety or even panic attacks. For the woman above with the choking phobia we could start by slowly introducing food with seeds and try to...

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General Psychology

somewhere or as a result from something. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning could be the cause of phobias and addictions. However, they could also help or make things worse for a person with the phobia or addiction, through the process of extinction. Phobias Through Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning, a theory developed by Ivan Pavlov, is a learning process that occurs through association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus Kowalski & Westen...

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stuff the tigers

to decide whether they live or die. As the most developed and intelligent species, it is our duty to preserve nature. What is more, it is not that hard to save the tigers from extinction, but clearly Mr. Clarkson cares nothing for their disappearance and the little effort it would take to make a difference. Extinction of any species is a global, environmental problem and one of the most important issues to face the world. It should be concerning all countries. However, from the opening line...

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Phobias and Addictions

conditioning. Phobias can be acquired through classical conditioning by pairing a neutral stimulus with something that causes grave pain (NIU, 2003). Phobia reactions can be ongoing unless the individual is exposed to the extinction process. According to NIU (2003), during the extinction process, an individual must face the fear without the presence of the unconditioned stimulus. For example, in the experiment conducted by Watson and Rayner, Little Albert formed a phobia of white rats and other furry...

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Apes Ap Notes

particular region. a.Taxonomists, the scientists who classify species, use an organism’s physical appearance and genetic makeup to determine to which species it belongs. b.Speciation, the generation of new species, adds to species diversity, while extinction decrease species diversity. c. Biodiversity exists below the species level in the form of subspecies. 2. Genetic diversity encompasses the differences in DNA composition among individuals within a given species. a. Whether genetic...

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Protection of Endangered Species

Situation). For this reason endangered species deserve more protection than the current regulations provide. <br> <br>Throughout history there have been many different reasons for the extinction of species. The earliest known reason was 64-66 million years ago when scientists believe a meteorite struck earth causing the extinction of the dinosaur and of 85% of the species existing at the time (Sherry, 2). Another major problem is the introduction of species into a new environment. Most introduced species...

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The importance of conservation to wildlife.

population has climbed, the extinction rate of other species has also gone up; indeed, humans began causing extinctions about 45,000 years ago (Conservation of wildlife populations 2007, L.Scott Mills). The Dodo bird Raphus cucullatus is an extinct flightless bird which once occupied the island of Mauritius (Figure 1) Sailors hunted the bird to extinction and the bird is now recalled as stupid and dumb for not getting out of the way of humans causing their extinction. Many of our other species today...

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Amphibians - Essay

Original Source: For my original source, I have chosen the article “status and trends of Amphibian Declines and Extinctions Worldwide, “ which featured in Science on the 3rd of December in 2004. In this article, Simon N. Stuart el at. assesses the problem of amphibian declinations. It is a known fact the world’s species are facing extinction at an alarming rate, but amphibians are dying faster than other types of animals. Since the 1970s, amphibians have been declining in quantity and dying rates...

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Dog Phobia Case Study

altogether. To the individual affected by a phobia, his or her fear is not only rational but also very real. Overcoming a phobia can be a lifelong process in identifying the true nature of the phobia, finding the origins of the phobia, and possible extinction of the specific phobia. Regardless how a phobia is acquired the individual suffering with this type of anxiety disorder identifies the phobia as real and at times can become debilitating. In this case study of Sally, the topics of operant and...

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I Hold the Future, Preserving the Philippine's Biodiversity

medicinal, agricultural, or industrial value. Much of the Earth’s great biodiversity is rapidly disappearing, even before we know what is missing. Most biologists agree that life on Earth is now faced with the most severe extinction episode since the event that drove the dinosaurs to extinction 65 million years ago. Species of plants, animals, fungi, and microscopic organisms such as bacteria are being lost at alarming rates—so many, in fact, that biologists estimate that three species go extinct every hour...

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Environmental Effects When Species Become Extinct

ourselves. They are innocent sufferers in a hell of our making. (JEFFREY MOUSSAIEFF MASSON &amp; SUSAN MCCARTHY, When Elephants Weep) Now a days is common to listen that more and more kind of animals are going to be part of a long list of species in extinction called “the red list”, When a animal is endangered it means that they are disappearing fast or have a very small population. Every day we can see in the media the great campaign that is carried out to preserve these animals, as for example: they...

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Phobias and Addiction Paper

systematically planned procedure (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Produced in a similar process are phobias, addictions, and the process of extinction. The following considers how phobias develop through classical conditioning, how addictions develop through operant conditioning, how these two types of conditioning differ, and finally covering the process of extinction and how it is achieved in both types of conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical and Operant conditioning are processes...

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Educational Psychology Notes

Skinner Behaviorist Theory Operant Conditioning Observable Positive & Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Clear Goals Logical Sequence Self- Pacing Schedules of Reinforcement Token economies Contingency contracts Operant Conditioning WATSON 1913- Observe what can be seen not mental or emotional states Behavioral learning Theory Keyword Obervable MISSED Major Theorist- Skinner (Up top) “Organisms learn to ‘operate’ on their environment in order to obtain or avoid...

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Animal Endangerment

What is going to happen to the wild animals if we continue eliminating them at this rate? They will become victims of animal endangerment. What is animal endangerment? Endangerment of an animal means that the animal species is close to extinction. When discussing the causes of endangerment, it is important to under stand that individual species are not the only factors involved in this dilemma. Although some measures are being taken to help specific causes of endangerment, the universal...

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Contextual Conditioning of Drug Tolerance and Drug Addiction

contribute this behavior to either goal-directed or habitual learning processes. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery (Relapse) Taylor, Olausson, Quinn &amp; Torregrossa (2008) propose that recovering addicts continue to respond to drug cues long after they have stopped using drugs. In a study on rats, Chaudri, Sahuque, &amp; Junak (2008) concluded that environmental contexts trigger relapse of drug seeking behavior after extinction has occurred. According to the study, rats were tested to see if they responded...

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Operant Conditioning

a classical conditioning procedure are not maintained by consequences.[1] Reinforcement, punishment, and extinction Reinforcement and punishment, the core tools of operant conditioning, are either positive (delivered following a response), or negative (withdrawn following a response). This creates a total of four basic consequences, with the addition of a fifth procedure known as extinction (i.e. no change in consequences following a response). It's important to note that actors are not spoken...

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Phobia and Addictions

as basic behaviors are developed through operant and classical conditioning, so are addictions and phobias. Establishing the differences of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, how phobias and addictions are related, and the following extinctions of both conditions are what will be discussed. Phobias and Addictions through Classical and Operant Conditioning We have learned that classical condition is a learned behavior and operant conditioning is an inherent...

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Rewilding North America

went on, biologists delineated conservation efforts in order to build "corridors" to save wildlife from extinction. These efforts have been going on for decades, but there's still no answer on how to connect nature with humans. However Pluie, umbrella species, and equilibrium are examples that exemplify humans have to connect with nature using an "open" system in order to prevent animal extinction and help build a better ecosystem for animals and humans to live in together. Pluie, a wolf, is a great...

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Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Summary/Notes Conservation of Biodiversity Modern Conservation Legacies * The world is in a sixth mass extinction (the biodiversity is declining at a rapid rate) * Causes are mostly by human activities * Habitat destruction * Overharvesting plant and animal populations * Results in growing interest in conserving biodiversity by setting aside areas that are protected from any human activities * Establishing national parks, national monuments, national...

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Skinner's Reinforcement Model

behaviour is controlled by manipulating the consequences. 2. Reinforcement Strategies There are four strategies of reinforcement which are used in operant conditioning, such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. 1. Positive Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement is done by giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behaviour. For example, a manager immediately praises an employee for coming early for job. This will...

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Endangered Species

Endangered Species Issue Question: Should Endangered Species be Protected? Since the appeared of the first life on this planet, numerous species come and go, rendered extinct by natural changes in physical and biological conditions. Because extinction is a natural part of the order, if there are many other species still exist, some people might wonders why or what so unique about the endangered species that large sum of money and effort is spent in order to save and restore them (Why Save Endangered...

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Phobias and Addictions Through Conditioning

developed by using classical conditioning in subjects using fear tactics. Addictions can be developed or removed by using operant conditioning in subjects. Despite operant and classical conditioning being used to develop phobias and addictions, extinction can be used in both to remove the current conditionings. The operant and classical conditioning are two types of behavioral conditioning. Conditioning is actually a type of learning. First, one must distinguish between the two types to gain essential...

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Wildlife-Conservation and Importance(India)

beautiful. * Nature... (Indescribable) Food, pets, traditional medicines Anthropologists believe that the Stone Age peoples and hunter-gatherers relied on wildlife, both plant and animal, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by early human hunters. Today, hunting, fishing, or gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in some parts of the world. In other areas, hunting and non-commercial fishing are mainly seen as a sport or recreation, Many Amazon species...

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Classical Conditioning

being fed. Operant conditioning requires that the person or subject do something to receive positive or negative reinforcement. Extinction is basically to unlearn a certain reaction. “Extinction occurs when a CR is weakened by presentation of the CS without the UCS.” (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011). As far as classical conditioning is concerned, extinction happens when a conditioned stimuli is no longer present. For example, if a dog is used to being rewarded with a treat by performing...

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Top 5 Environmental Issues

only 15 to 25 years away. 5. Mammal Extinction One in four mammals is threatened with extinction. That’s 25%, a huge number that will totally change the ecology of every corner of the earth. We could see thousands of species die out in our lifetime, and the rate of habitat loss and hunting in crucial areas like Southeast Asia, Central Africa and Central and South America is growing so rapidly, these animals barely have a chance. If you think the extinction of an animal like the beautiful Iberian...

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Stuff the tiger

Chinese people believe that tiger bones, claws and even penises will cure any number of ailments, including arthritis and impotency. And as a result we’ve just been told, for about the hundredth time, that if nothing is done extinction looms. Well, not complete extinction. Obviously tigers will continue to exist in Las Vegas for many years to come. And in Asia there are so many backstreet big cat farms that they outnumber cows. But they will cease to exist in the wild. Right. And what are we...

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Why Zoos Are Necessary for the Cognitive Expansion of Humanity

touch. Zoos can also use these connections people form to educate the public about conservation efforts that are vital to the survival of many species. B. Exception to Extinction Zoos and aquariums are on the forefront of conservation efforts. Through research and public education, they are helping to stave off extinction for several flagging species. For example, the Denver Zoo alone in currently involved with over ninety conversation projects that span the globe in places like South America...

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Bringing Back the Woolly Mammoth, and Maybe More?

“Conservation experts have already signaled that the world is in the grip of the "sixth great extinction" of species, driven by the destruction of natural habitats, hunting, the spread of alien predators and disease, and climate change.” (Jowitt) The main causes for this rapid extinction of species, unlike previous years, are mostly due to the lack of consideration by the human population. The recent mass extinctions are caused by five main points: * Habitat destruction * Invasive species *...

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Phobias and Addictions 4

same time as a particular effect, such as engaging in the use of a particular substance or engaging in a particular activity .While the two have verse differences they posses some similarities as both being methods to modify behavior and the use of extinction. Explain how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning A phobia is a common anxiety disorder in psychology discipline thus phobias are traditionally irrational fears of an object, situation...

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Land Pollution

to problems like acid rains, greenhouse effect, global warming. All of these problems have already initiated and need to be curbed before the situation runs out of control. 2. Extinction of Species One of the major causes of concern is the extinction of species. Species are pushed towards endangerment and extinction primarily by two processes. Habitat fragmentation is the fragmentation of the natural habitat of an organism; cause primarily by urban sprawl. Habitat destruction, on the other hand...

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Endangered Animals

Are Endangered Animals an Issue? There are around 41,000 endangered species, and around 16,000 of them are on the edge of extinction. There are many reasons for animals to go endangered, such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, predation, illegal killing, and poaching. Habitat loss happens by a mixture of things logging, agriculture, the building of roads and cities, and forest fires. Habitat loss affects China’s giant panda because of the expanding buildings in China. Pollution is affecting fish...

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Is Biodiversity Overprotected?

Since in reality extinction is inevitable for all organisms at some point or another, it is our job as humans to do everything in our power to slow this process down as much as possible, especially for those species already considered endangered. In the history of the Earth, there have been approximately five major extinctions due to climate changes, natural disasters, or meteoroids/asteroids that have fallen from the sky. The world is currently looking at a sixth major extinction that is almost 100%...

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human benefit or entertainment. Food, pets, and traditional medicines Anthropologists believe that the Stone Age people and hunter-gatherers relied on wildlife, both plants and animals, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by early human hunters. Today, hunting, fishing, and gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in some parts of the world. In other areas, hunting and non-commercial fishing are mainly seen as a sport or recreation, with the edible meat...

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Age of the Universe

have today. Mass extinctions are when a species has become wiped out. There have been about five mass extinctions that have occurred so far. The first that occurred was during the Paleozoic era which was the end of the Ordovician. Scientist found that 60% of terrestrial and marine lives had disappeared out of nowhere. The next mass extinction was the late Devonian. The environment no longer provided enough for the survival of these organisms. The third mass extinction was the end of the Permian...

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