Bacteria and Toothpaste

Topics: Toothpaste, Oral hygiene, Teeth Pages: 8 (1658 words) Published: February 19, 2014


Bacteria and Toothpaste: The Effect of Toothpaste on Bacteria

Table of Contents
Page 1: Title Page
Page 2: Table of Contents
Page 3: Introduction
Page 4 – 6: Research
Page 7 – 10: Lab Report
Page 11: Conclusion
Page 12: References

Bacteria and Toothpaste: The Effect of Toothpaste on Bacteria My project is on Toothpaste and Bacteria, and how bacteria is effected by toothpaste. I found this project very interesting because it was an opportunity to see first-hand how bacteria grows. I could also see other objects effecting that growth. I was intrigued to see how the bacteria would grow, in what way, and to see different substances, materials, and external agents influence the experiment. Circumstances like temperature and sunlight also altered the project. All these factors affected my decision to choose this project. I have learned many new concepts from the experience, and I am glad to say that I made the right decision in choosing this particular experiment.

Research
Bacteria are single-celled organisms that live on humans, plants, animals, soil water, and in the air. They are organisms that have a variety of functions and roles. But in order for many things to survive and live, they are a vital part of our lives. Since the word bacteria is often grouped with the word germ, it leads them to have the bad reputation as disease holders. More than half of the bacteria living in this world is not harmless, but helpful in our everyday lives. There is so much bacteria in the world that it would be impossible to get rid of all of them. No matter how much we brush, or scrub ourselves with soap, we will never be able get rid of all the bacteria on our body. Bacteria was first identified by Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1676, a Dutch scientist at the time. He first observed them through a hand-crafted microscope. This first observation paved the pathway to discovering what we know about bacteria today. It also helped us learn many things about evolution. Studies prove that bacteria were the first life forms on earth, and how fossils old as 3.5 billion years old have found to contain cyanobacteria. DNA studies have demonstrated that modern-day bacteria have evolved from these earliest known bacteria. Scientists classify bacteria into groups according to their shape, oxygen requirements, and their type of metabolism. Bacteria can be shaped as a rod, a spiral, or a sphere. According to their oxygen requirements, they are grouped into aerobic, which can tolerate oxygen, and anaerobic, which cannot tolerate oxygen. Bacteria can also be classified as autotrophs or heterotrophs. Autotrophs are bacteria that can metabolize carbon from carbon dioxide, while heterotrophs cannot perform this process. The millions and millions of invisible bacteria that we carry around every day have a very large effect on our lives. Of those millions of bacteria, more than half of them live and thrive in our mouths. Many of the bacteria are able to attach onto our teeth, and stick together through the organic compounds they produce. For the other bacteria that have no means of sticking onto surfaces, they live in crevices and folds of our teeth and soft tissues like gums. Oxygen cannot reach those cracks and crevices, so you would most likely find anaerobic bacteria there. If not cleaned properly or regularly, the bacteria can start to turn sugars and food that enter the mouth into acid, that start to eat away at teeth and cause tooth decay. This is where toothpaste comes in. Toothpaste is designed to prevent tooth decay and gum disease, while at the same time killing bad breath germs, helping with fresh breath. People have been using toothpaste since at least 5000 BC. Egyptians used a cream made of myrrh and water along with the abrasives of powdered eggshells, ashes of ox hooves and the volcanic glass pumice to clean their teeth. People have also used...


References: Chemistry in a Tube of Toothpaste. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/chemistry-in-a-tube-of-toothpaste-info4.
Moore, S. (2008, November 12). How Does Toothpaste Clean Your Teeth? | eHow. eHow. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/about_4596423_toothpaste-clean-teeth.html?vm=r&s=1
Patent, D. (1980). Bacteria | How They Affect Other Living Things. New York: Holiday House.
Pestka, J. (2008, October 28). About Bacteria | eHow. eHow. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/about_4565976_bacteria.html?vm=r&s=1 
Taylor, R. (2010, April 1). Toothpaste Ingredients | eHow. eHow. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6170786_toothpaste-ingredients.html?vm=r&s=1
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