Chapter 16 Assessment
For Each term or name below, briefly explain it connection to the development of Native American cultures in North America, Mesoamerica, or South America. - Tikal’s connection to the development of Native American culture in Mesoamerica is there religion. The people believed in many gods just as the Native Americans did. They also did dances and other things to please the gods to get them great weather or prosperity. That is what the Native Americans got from the city of Tikal. - Glyphs were hieroglyphic symbols its connection to the Native Americans in Mesoamerica is that is the form of writing the Native Americans used. - Quetzalcoatl was a god he was known as the Feathered Serpent. He connects to Native American culture in Mesoamerica because the Native Americans also worshipped him. - Montezuma the second was a very harsh ruler the connection he has to Native American culture is that since he eventually lead the Spanish to come to his city and change everything the Native Americans have some of those traditions. - Pachacuti was an emperor of the Incan civilization in South America. His connection to Native American culture is his legacy taught them to be fair and honorable. Maya Kings and Cities
13) What role did religion play in Maya life?
- Religion played a very big role in Mayan life; it influenced most parts of Mayan life. They believed in many gods. They worshipped their gods in many ways. They also pierced or cut their bodies because they believed that their blood helped nourish the gods. They even had human sacrifices; they would throw a person into a lake along with offerings. 14) What were three major achievements of the Maya civilization? - Three major achievements of the Mayan civilization were Tikal was one of the Mayan civilization's largest and most developed cities. Also, the ruins in Copan, just across the border from Guatemala are characterized by ornate stone carvings and hieroglyphics as well as a large ball court. Finally, as the former capital of the ancient Maya Empire, Chechen Itza is one of the most impressive and renowned Mayan cultural sites. The ruins include a 75 foot pyramid known as the Temple of Kuku can and an ancient Ball Court where Mayans once played a mysterious ball game. 15) How did the Aztecs build and control their city?
- Through fear and military force. The Aztec state was permanently organized for aggressive war, and their military had formal unit organization, uniforms, and proper military training and drills - all things which the peoples they conquered and neighbors lacked. 16) Why did the Aztecs sacrifice human beings to their gods? - The Aztecs did this because Huitzilopochtli, the main god of the Aztecs and the god of war, was bloodthirsty and he needed sacrifices to sustain him in his journey throughout the day. The Aztecs believed that if they didn't sacrifice a human then the sun would not rise the next day.
17) List three ways in which the Incan government involved itself in people’s lives. - The Inca state was totalitarian in the extreme, every aspect of the citizen's day to day life being organized for them by the state. Corvee labor system for agricultural production and state building projects. Compulsory military training for all males. State run system to take care of the elderly and infirm. 18) How did the Incan religion reinforce the power of the state? - The Incan religion helped reinforce the power of the state because as with the Aztecs, religion was important to the Inca and helped reinforce the power of the state. Critical Thinking
3) Compare the religious beliefs of Maya, the Aztecs, and Inca. How were they similar? How were they different? - They are all similar because they are all ancient civilizations. They are different because the difference between the Aztecs and Mayas where that the Mayas studied astronomy, mathematics and the Aztecs only thought about ruling other people and sacrificing them. 5) The Maya civilization was the most advanced of the early American civilizations. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer. - I agree with this statement. I agree because the Mayans recorded their history in hieroglyphics, a writing system that used pictures and certain symbols. Archaeologists today are still trying to decode the many hieroglyphics found on religious temples, stairs, and the walls of homes and palaces. Another educational advance was the development of an advanced mathematics system. This system was not perfected in Europe until centuries later. This system contained the number zero. The Mayans also developed a three hundred and sixty five day calendar that was modeled after the movement of the sun, moon, and stars.