Flourishing North American Cultures

Powerful Essays
2000 years before Europeans began to arrive in the New World, the last era of the pre-Columbian development began. North American cultures such as the Mississippian culture, the Hopewell Tradition, and the Hohokam culture experienced growth and environmental adaptation throughout this era. Major contributions and innovations of Native Americans have developed and been passed on through generations of ancestors.
Originating in 700 A.D., the Mississippian culture expanded through the Mississippi Valley and out into the southeastern states of Alabama, Georgia and Florida. For 800 years, until the 1550s, the Mississippian culture prospered. They cultivated a substantial amount of corn, by means of intensive farming, and other crops, such as squash and beans. Their trade networks with other native Americans extended across the New World in all directions, as far west as the Rocky Mountains, north as the Great Lakes, south as the Gulf of Mexico and east as the Atlantic Ocean. They manufactured an abundance of stone, shell and copper products. Some scholars believe that the Mississippian culture evolved as a result of climate conditions and their own strength and ability to grow, though others argue that Mexico influenced their agricultural techniques and religious practices.
Native Americans of the Mississippian culture were nicknamed Temple Mound Builders because they built earthen temple mounds that were several stories high and had flat tops. The significant buildings, such as their wooden temples, council houses and chief’s house, were built atop these mounds. The cultural hub of the Mississippian culture was Cahokia, which occupied over 8000 people and was the first metropolis of America. Constructed near present day Collinsville, Illinois, Cahokia occupied nearly 120 temple mounds, including Monks Mound, the largest mound in North America and nearly 100 feet tall.
The Mississippian culture developed a complex chiefdom level of social organization.



Bibliography: Chaco Canyon. Exploratorium . 2 Sep. 2008 <http://www.exploratorium.edu/chaco/HTML/canyon.html>. Major Pre-Columbian Indian Cultures in the United States. 3 Sep. 2008 <http://www.nativeamericans.com/Pre-Columbian.htm>. Nash, Gary B., and Julie R. Jeffrey. The American People. 5th ed. Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc, 2001. 1 Sep. 2008. Schroedl, Gerald F. Mississippian Culture. 1998. Tennessee Historical Society. 3 Sep. 2008 <http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=M108>. Sharp, Jay W. Desert People of the Past. 2001. 2 Sep. 2008 <http://www.desertusa.com/ind1/du_peo_ancient.html>. Stein, Anthony. The Mississippian Moundbuilders and their Artifacts. 1 Mar. 2000. 3 Sep. 2008 <http://www.mississippian-artifacts.com/>. Radonjic, Brankica . The Hopewell Culture. Ed. Kristian A. Werling. 25 Sep. 1996. WebChron. 3 Sep. 2008 <http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/NorthAmerica/Hopewell.html>.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Better Essays

    North American Culture

    • 1280 Words
    • 6 Pages

    1 & 2 North America Before the Europeans explorers had arrived, the descendants of the prehistoric pioneers and later migrants - the Native Americans - had formed a variety of tribes throughout North America. Each tribe was related. Some were simple nomads who roamed through the west of the continent, while some were forest dwellers who worked as hunters and fishermen. The southwest region of North America was home to the farming people of the Pueblo country, inhabiting substantial cities…

    • 1280 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Early North American Cultures I October 29, 201 Early North American Cultures The first group of people to migrate to a relatively bare and less frigid North America was Asians and their Native American descendants who unwittingly were the first to discover and create settlements in what is known today as North America. Long before any ships sailed from Europe in search of new land and a haven from the turmoil, starvation and disease that plagued their homeland, these nomadic hunters…

    • 788 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    reasoning behind it, especially before the invention of writing and throughout various extinct cultures. There is also a problem in interpreting artistic expressions of the past based on the classifications and aesthetics of the present day, rather than the context of the people at the time of the piece’s original creation (Scott, 2006). Therefore, understanding the archaeological context of the culture being investigated is vital in order to identify manifestations…

    • 1578 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    of North American popular culture knowledge affected their educational experience. The interview will follow a semi-structured interview method. The semi-structured interview is an interview in which the researcher asks some predetermined questions, but also allows interviewees time and opportunity to explore other areas they think relevant (Hinchey, 2008, p. 82). Some of the interview questions that will be discussed are: • What was your knowledge about the North American popular culture before…

    • 225 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    As a white working class female living in Canada, I have a culture that, although has unique traditions, is largely similar to the stereotype of “North American Culture.” My race would be considered Caucasian as I fit the generic physical traits associated with that race. Culture and race have different meanings and implications and therefore affect people in different ways. Culture is a collection of beliefs, traditions, arts, and other works associated with a group of people. Race is a group of…

    • 887 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The North American Culture: Does it affect your children’s body image? Teenagers’ value and their body image and their personal appearance due to the “perfect” body image Hollywood portrays. Many young girls in the North American culture have been highly affected by the image Hollywood is showing off. Many of these girls are considering cosmetic surgery, makeovers, and diets to change how they define themselves. In this generation, teenagers and even adults worry about the beauty that comes…

    • 824 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    often insufferable, with the masses being shoved together in spaces that were too small to hold them. Some populations, such as the ones in North America, had self-reproducing slave populations and thus did not need to import as many slaves. Others, such as in the Caribbean, had to continually import new slaves as the death rate always exceeded the birth rate. Culture: There was not a sense of unity throughout Africa, therefore various African groups captured their enemies and sold them into slavery.…

    • 479 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    North American Women

    • 1076 Words
    • 5 Pages

    The Past and Present: From North American Women to Women of the Middle East Introduction to Anthropology The Past and Present: From North American Women to Women of the Middle East The female plays a vital role in every culture, but the expectation of a woman is different from North America to the Middle East. American women had to fight for their current rights, but in some countries women are not given the opportunity to fight, or even think it. Both religion and men from the Middle East…

    • 1076 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    China’s Flourishing Civilization China’s Geography Map of China What topographical features are present and not-present on this map would influence China’s development? Major River Systems Ancient China had two major river systems: • Huang He which is also known as the Yellow River • Yangtze which is also known as the Chang Jiang . Major River Systems • The Huang He River system 3,000 miles long • Empties into the Yellow Sea • Ancient Chinese civilization began along this river…

    • 1492 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    North American Cheetah

    • 955 Words
    • 4 Pages

    there is no rejection of the donor skin. It is thought that the species went through a prolonged period of inbreeding following a genetic bottleneck during the last ice age. This suggests that genetic monomorphism did not prevent the cheetah from flourishing across two continents for thousands of years. The cheetah likely evolved in Africa during the Miocene epoch, before migrating to Asia. Recent research has placed the last common ancestor of all existing populations as living in Asia 11 million…

    • 955 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays