Socialization –the social learning process through which individuals develop their human potentials and also acquire the established patterns of their culture (p. 362)… Socialization is not a simple “learn it once and it’s yours forever” experience reserved exclusively for societal newcomers. Even long-term members of any given society must continuously alter their personal knowledge, values, beliefs, and behaviors as physical, cultural, societal, and other environments surrounding them undergo constant—and often unexpected—change (p. 74)…We begin the socialization experience on the day of our birth, and we do not end that experience until the day of our death (p. 75).
Cognitive Development (Jean Piaget)
... children gradually develop cognitive abilities through interaction with their social setting through the process of socialization. Piaget contends that children are not merely passive recipients of social stimuli; they are actively engaged in interpreting their environment as they attempt to adjust to it. Cognitive ability, in Piaget’s theory, advances in stages.
* Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to two years old) –most of the activities as associated with learning to coordinate body movements with information obtained from the senses…Only gradually do children come to realize that they are an object separate from other things…One of the most significant developments during this stage is the development of a sense of “object permanence” –a sense that objects exist even when they cannot be seen…During this stage, children come to see their world as an understandable and predictable place.
2. Preoperational stage (two to seven) … [children are starting to learn] to think symbolically and to use language... [they are extremely egoistic and] is clearly reflected in their inability to see things from other’s points of view.
3. Concrete operational stage (seven to eleven years old) [is characterized by] increasing abstractness. A child begins to think logically about time, quantity, and space; handle arithmetic operations, and place things logically in categories. In addition, children can reverse thoughts and operations during this stage…A certain degree of abstract thinking in children of this age is reflected in the children’s ability to imagine themselves in the place of others and to gear their behavior to others. Despite the movement toward abstract thinking…the child still has difficulty if concrete objects are not involved. Logical thinking is tied to action, to the observation or manipulation of concrete symbols and objects.
4. Formal operational stage (eleven and above) Children learn to think without the aid of concrete objects and manipulations; they can begin to think in terms of abstract ideas and principles… adolescent[s] can reason about hypothetical matters
Psychoanalytic Perspective (Sigmund Freud)
* Composition of the human personality (conflicting processes within the mind…)
1. Id – made up of biologically inherited urges, impulses, and desires. It is selfish, irrational, impulsive, antisocial, and unconscious. The Id operates on the pleasure principle—the principle of having whatever feels good…
2. Ego –the conscious, rational part of the personality that thinks, plans, and decides. The ego is ruled by the reality principle, which allows us to delay action until a time when the gratification of our desires is more likely.
3. Superego – develops at about four to five years of age… roughly the conscience… it contains al the ideas about what is right and wrong that we have learned from those close to us, particularly our parents. By incorporating their ideals into our personality, we develop what may be thought of as an internal parent. Parents are no longer the only source of punishment for wrongdoing; we punish ourselves through guilt feelings. At the same time, we feel good about...
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