2.3 Explain how theories of development and framework to support development influence current practices. There have been many theories on how children develop and learn, some of the theorists who influence the educators of today on how to best teach children.
Jean Piaget Cognitive
Piaget studied the thinking and logic of children and he believed that children had different logic to adults. Piaget started his theory by observing and studying his own children and concluded that children learn and build their ideas on what they see and experience, not by what they are taught. The more the children see and gain in experience the more their schemas would change and develop as they add new information.
This is known as constructivist theory, coming from the word to build
Schemas: a child’s construction and conclusions of thoughts and ideas.
Piaget believed there are 4 stages of biological development to show how the brain grows.
Assimilation: Child constructs a theory
Equilibrium: the schema stays the same according to their experiences to confirm their idea
Disequilibrium: Child has doubts and questions their ideas and tries to work it out
Accommodation: Child adjusts her thinking and schema according to the new information.
Piaget theory proposed that children could not fast track through the stages of development and that children would go through but same order (sequence) but would reach stages at different ages depending on their rate of development.
Children with disability can have difficulty progressing through the stages and may stop and not proceed any further without intervention.
Cognitive age stages of development
Stage Age Feature
Sensori-motor 0-2 Child gains control over their body and uses their senses to understands and recognises objects around them
Preoperational stage 2-7 Children develop their skills and begin to use language and believe that see and have the same thoughts as them