Assignment 1: Theories of Development
There are many theories about the way children learn, many practitioners believe that children learn in a variety of ways.
Some key theories have shaped and continue to shape work with children.
I am going to look at development psychology such as cognitive language and emotional development etc.
Cognition is a group of mental processes that includes attention, memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making.
Jean Piaget began to develop his theory in the 1950s thought the way in which children’s thoughts can be different from adults. He concluded that children’s logic stemmed from their direct experiences.
Piaget grouped cognitive development into 4 stages:
a) Sensory-motor 0-2 year’s development of object permanence begins to use symbols (language). b) Pre-operational 2-7 years uses symbols in play and thought, egocentrism, centration, animism, inability to conserve. c) Concrete operational 7-11 year’s ability to conserve, children begin to solve mental problems using practical supports such as counters and objects. d) Formal operational 11-15 years can think about situations that they have not experienced, can juggle with ideas in their minds.
We put Piaget’s theory in to practice today in the classroom, such as with sensory-motor development we use pictures such as a picture of ASDA to go to ASDA and symbols as a form of communication.
We use pre-operational development such as use of symbols or language to develop problem solving memory and imagination possibly threw games. Such as a pairs
We use concrete operational such as the use of objects to help students develop mass weight length and how to manipulate objects. For example balls at different size and weights.
For formal operational we use this to help promote higher problem solving flexibility of thought such as students making there own timeline or work schedule.
Freud’s structure of personality
Freud believed that there are three parts that make up our personality.
1) The id. This is the interactive part of the personality. It is governed by the drives and needs of the body. The id does not consider how meeting desires and wants will affect others and so is often thought of as the selfish and passionate component.
2) The ego. The ego has a planning role. It works out how to meet the ids needs and desires in the best way. The ego is often thought of as being the common sense part of our personalities.
3) The super ego. The super ego develops in later childhood; it tries to control the ego. It comprises of two elements the conscience and the ego-ideal. The conscience will punish the ego if it misbehaves. This is the source of guilt. The ego-ideal will reward the ego if it shows good behaviour. This is the source of pride and confidence.
Freud’s theory gives an insight into how a person’s personality can develop.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need
Maslow believed we all have a hierarchy of needs, he suggested that children need this to continue to progress and reach their potential. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs has often been represented in a hierarchical pyramid with five levels.
The levels are as follows-
A) Physiological – includes air, food water, sleep, etc B) Safety – includes security of environment, employment, resources, health, property, etc C) Belongingness – includes love, friendship, family, etc D) Esteem – includes confidence, self-esteem, achievement, respect, etc. E) Self-actualisation – morality, creativity, problem solving etc.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival its self.
For today’s standards we make sure each child’s basic needs are met. In our classroom child’s safety is...
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