Middle East Notes
Diaspora: 132 C.E. by the Romans—“dispersal” and in the 70 CE the Roman’s destroyed the 2nd temple.
Dreyfus Affair: 1894—Captain Alfred Dreyfus (French Jew) is convicted of selling military secrets to the Germans. --Anti-Semitism greur
Zionism – Theodore Herzl, Is a secular Jew and Journalist. He believed in assimilation until the Dreyfus Affair. 1897—First Zimist Congress
Pre-WWI situation in the Middle East: Under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Arab Muslims had been there for 12 centuries. The Jews is the area was 25,000 people
1st aliyah—1882- 1903 20,000 Jews immigrate.
2nd aliyah--- 1905- 1914 35,000 more Jews immigrate.
WWI in the Middle East: British “owned” the Suez…but the Ottomans attacked it.
Husayn-McMahon correspondence – 1915
• An agreement between the British and Husayn (Hussein) Ibn Ali (Sherif Hussein) of Mecca- leader of the Hashemite’s. • In return for an Arab revolt against the Ottomans, Henry McMahon promised support for an Arab kingdom after the war. • Interestingly, the British made his son, Faisal, King of Iraq after WWI and his other son, Abdullah, King of Transjordoan
Sykes-Picot Agreement – In 1916 it is a secret agreement. Great Britain and France decided to each carve out their spheres of influence in the Middle East after WWII Lebanon and Syria would be France’s mandate areas.
Palestine, Transjordon, Iraq would be GB’s mandate area.
Balfour Declaration –
• Named for Arthur James Balfour, British foreign secretary at the time. • The British wanted to keep the Russians in the war and get the Americans in and thought support for a Jewish state in Palestine would sway the Jewish public in those countries. • “His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national homeland for the Jewish people…”
** also read the article on these three deals!
The situation in the Middle East between world wars, during WWII, and
Egypt (p 566) –
• Egypt is important to the British because of the Suez Canal and is never a mandate. • Although the Ottoman Empire officially ruled Egypt, the British had in fact controlled the country since 1882. • When the Ottomans joined the Central Powers in 1914, the British declared Egypt a protectorate. After World War I a strong nationalist movement developed in Egypt, led by the Wafd Party. In 1919 the party led a popular revolt against the British. • Although the British quickly put down this revolt, calls for independence continued. Finally, in 1922, the British declared Egypt independent. • However, the British government would leave military forces there to defend Egypt and the Suez Canal. Britain also maintained administrative control over the Sudan. • During the 1920s and early 1930s, the Egyptian independence movement grew stronger. Egyptian nationalists wanted complete freedom from Britain. • After Italy invaded Ethiopia, an alarmed Egypt and Britain forged the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, which gave Egypt greater independence. • The treaty provided the British military with a garrison in Egypt for 20 years. The two nations pledged to support each other if war broke out in the Middle East, and Britain sponsored Egypt's membership in the League of Nations. • Many Egyptians, however, were not satisfied because British troops were still stationed throughout Egypt.
Turkey becomes a republic (p 570)-
• After its defeat in World War I, the once mighty Ottoman Empire was stripped of all its land except Turkey. Greek troops arrived to impose the peace treaty's terms. • Ottoman government could do nothing to prevent their increasing grip on the country. Then Mustafa Kemal, a hero of the fighting at Gallipoli, stepped forward. • Kemal and his nationalist followers took control of the assembly. Declaring that Turkey’s enemies controlled the sultan, the assembly appointed a council headed by Kemal to run the country. • Kemal's forces drove the Greeks from Turkey in 1922. That same year the assembly did away with the sultanate. In 1923 it established the Republic of Turkey and moved the capital to Ankara. • Kemal became the republic's first president. The government became a one-party system led by the president. • Kemal believed that the war had shown the superiority of Western technology and Western ideas of nationalism. He worked to modernize and westernize Turkey. • Believing that Islam was a roadblock to modernization, he drew up a new constitution that ended the long union of Islam and the government. • He abolished the position of caliph, imposed broad civil and social reforms, and abandoned the Islamic calendar. • Kemal ordered the Turkish people to adopt Western ways. He prohibited the wearing of traditional clothing and decreed that all Turks take surnames. • He himself took the name Atatürk, meaning "father of the Turks." Kemal also established secular schools and colleges and replaced the Arabic-based Turkish alphabet with the Latin alphabet. • He supported laws that gave women the right to vote and hold office. His economic programs included state-run industries and subsidized farming. Under Kemal, Turkey became more prosperous.
Persia (Iran) (p. 571) -
• Turkey's neighbor, Persia, had never been under the control of the Ottoman Empire. • Shahs of the Qajar dynasty had ruled Persia since the 1700s. By about 1900, however, both Great Britain and Russia had influence on the Persian government. • In 1921 Reza Khan, a Persian army officer with strong nationalist feelings, seized control of the government. • Four years later, he deposed the ruling shah and took the throne, taking the title Reza Shah Pahlavi. Like Mustafa Kemal, Reza Shah wanted to modernize his country and free it from foreign domination. • He strengthened the army and broke the power of rebellious tribes. Under a massive reform program, he built roads and hospitals, established a university, and gave women more rights. • In 1935 Reza Shah announced that the country would be officially called what its people called it—Iran. • Iran's constitution called for a limited monarchy, but Reza Shah held most of the power. He strictly controlled the press and suppressed political parties. • His secret police ruthlessly put down any opposition to his government. • Reza Shah's foreign policy of balancing British and Russian interests led him to seek closer ties with Germany. This alliance would eventually cause his downfall.
Iraq (p. 703) –
• Iraq (mandate under British) and Jordan became Arab kingdoms under the sons of Sharif Husayn of Mecca. Sharif Hussayn son Faisal Bin Hussayn took over. • The British had installed them as monarchs after World War II.
Jordan (p. 703) –
• Iraq and Jordan became Arab kingdoms under the sons of Sharif Husayn of Mecca. Sherif Hussayn of Mecca has his son Abdullah took over • The British had installed them as monarchs after World War II.
Saudi Arabia (p. 703) –
• Saudi Arabia was a traditional Arab kingdom ruled by the house of Ibn Sa'ud. • 1932 is when independence is established.
• Ibn Sa’ud through out Sherif Hussein of Mecca.
• The British still held their mandate for Palestine, despite opposition from both Jews and Arabs. Britain's control over the Middle East, was about to slip away. • The Jewish Agency, which oversaw the affairs of the Jewish community in Palestine, supported increased Jewish immigration as survivors of the Nazi Holocaust fled Europe. • Jewish Agency withdrew its support for the British mandate because Britain refused to allow Holocaust survivors to resettle in Palestine. • In 1947 Britain gave up its Palestinian mandate and referred the entire problem to the United Nations. In November of that year the UN voted to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states. • 3rd ALiyah 1919-1923
• 4th Aliyah 1924- 1931 82,000 Jews immigrate
• 5th Aliyah 217,000 Jews
• During the early 1900s the manufacture of cars, ships, and aircraft increased greatly. These vehicles relied on petroleum for fuel. • 1920’s and 1930’s oil is discovered in the Middle East Westerners came in. • The demand for petroleum threatened to outrun production from existing oil fields. New sources of oil were needed, and the Middle East was where oil prospectors looked. • Many countries in this region granted prospecting companies—mostly from Britain or the United States—land-use permits called concessions to search for oil. • Beginning in the early 1900s, major oil fields were discovered in countries around the Persian Gulf and then in Libya in North Africa. The rulers of these countries—many of them monarchies established by colonial powers under protectorates—received a share of the oil companies' profits. • After World War II oil production increased, and the rulers and many of their subjects became very rich. Some critics pointed out that oil profits, called petrodollars, mainly increased the personal fortunes of local rulers. • However, much of the money did go to improve the lives of the citizens. Petrodollars paid for social welfare systems and huge economic developments throughout the Persian Gulf region. • They provided funds to build roads, schools, and desalinization plants to supply precious fresh water to desert regions. As nationalism grew following World War II, many oil-producing countries demanded a larger share of the profits. Foreign companies were often unwilling to grant their demands. • . In 1960 Middle East and Latin American oil-producing nations such as Venezuela created the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Other oil-producing nations later joined the organization. • As the bargaining agent for oil-producing nations, OPEC worked to set oil production levels and world oil prices. Its power soon became apparent. • During the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, Arab OPEC members used oil as an economic weapon. • They temporarily cut off shipments to the United States as punishment for supporting Israel. The price of oil rose sharply, from about $3 to more than $12 a barrel. • This boycott was later eased, partly because it also hurt OPEC members. • The discovery and development of new oil fields in Alaska and the North Sea helped Western nations reduce their dependency on Middle Eastern oil after 1973. The Persian Gulf oil fields, however, remain the world's largest.
Baathists ( p 703) –
• Similar reforms were embraced by the Ba'ath Party, which first emerged in Syria. Initially the Ba'athists emphasized a kind of Pan-Arab nationalism. • By the mid-1950s, however, they had also adopted socialism. This party appealed primarily to the new generation of Western-educated Arab intellectuals. • Ba'athism, whose name means rise or rebirth, took on many characteristics of dictatorial rule as it spread to neighboring countries such as Iraq and Lebanon. • In 1957 a Ba'athist government took over in Syria, and in 1958 a Ba'athist-inspired coup took place in Iraq. • A new generation of leaders emerged in the Middle East and North Africa that believed in socialism as the best way to modernize their countries. • The socialism practiced by these governments, however, proved to be the first step toward dictatorship.
The People of the Middle East:
Arab - refers to an ethnic group. Shares a common language and culture. There are 21 Arab Nations
Israeli - A citizen of Israel. Arabs can be Israeli citizens.
Palestinian - Arabs who lived in the area of Palestine
“There is no such thing as a Palestinian people.” Golda Meir
Jew - Can refer to ethnicity or religion
Persian - An Iranian. NOT Arab . Speak Farsi
1947 Partition Plan :
- In 1923, Britain divided Palestine along the Jordan River
← By 1947, the British had it. They referred the Palestine/Israeli question to the GA of the UN ← Jerusalem to be under international control
← Jewish state and the Palestinian state would each have three connecting triangles ← Jewish state received 55% of the land area while they had 34% of the population ← It passed, 33 - 13!
← May 14 David Ben-Gurion declared Israel’s independence ← The surrounding Arab states said they would invade Palestine if a Jewish state was declared ← By early 1948 the Jewish pop
← in Palestine was 600,000 and the Arab pop. was 1.3 million
The first Arab-Israeli War: The War of Independence or “Al Nakba” ← the 6 arab nations that attacked the newly declared Israeli state were: Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Iraq ← the Israelis began the war on the defensive but then went on the offensive and had some big victories ← by the war’s end the Israelis increased their territory by 1/3 ← 1/2 of the Palestinian population became refugees - some in the West Bank, some in Gaza Strip, Lebanon, or Jordan ← the Big question is... Were the arabs forced out or did they flee in hopes the arab armies would defeat the Israelis? ← Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Jordan annexed the West Bank ← Jerusalem became a divided city
← By 1949 the Arab minority in Israel declined from 40% to 20%
1956 War: The Suez Crisis
• Nasser (Pres. Of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal (after the US withdrew aid for the Aswan Dam). The Soviets give Egypt aid. • Israel’s shipping was being blocked out of the Strait of Tiran (know where this is) • Israel, France, and Great Britain work together on this one…The Israelis are to move toward the canal and the British and French need to go in to keep the Israelis and Egyptians away from each other and secure the canal. • Basically no territory is gained/ lost.
PLO: Palestinian Liberation Organization.
Leader – Yassir Arafat became the leader of the PLO in 1969. The Palestinians finally had their own spokesman (who had been doing it before?)
Founded – in 1964 by the Arab League. It was based in Jordon but kicked out in “Black September.” 1970 and the PLO the was based in Lebanon. “Fatah” was one of the groups/branches of the PLO.
1967 Arab-Israeli War: “The Six Day War”
A “defensive strike” or a “war of conquest”?
• This is the BIG one!
• Takes place over 6 days in June so is sometimes called the “Six Day War” • Israel thinks the Egyptians are going to attack so they make a “pre-emptive” strike • The main Arab players: Egypt, Jordan, Syria
• In this war Israel conquers: Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, Golan Heights, and East Jerusalem (where the Western Wall is located) • This war results in a lot more territory for the Israelis, increases the involvement of the US/ USSR (Cold War…Right?), and increases Palestinian identity as well as Jewish identity. • West Bank and Gaza Strip Israel occupied territories
“No recognition, No negotiation, No Peace”
1978. Arab leaders in Khartoum, 1967
UN Resolution 242: it was sponsored by Britain.
The basic premise was “land for peace”
• Israel should withdraw from the territory conquered in the ’67 war. • There should be a recognition of Israel’s and the Arab states’ ‘territorial integrity’ • There needs to be a just settlement to the refugee problem. • But What about Palestinian self- determination?
1973 Arab-Israeli War; “The Yom Kippur War” or “The October War” • Egypt (Anwar Sadat) and Syria launch an attack on Israel in the Sinai peninsula and the Golan Heights. • Initially the Arab countries make advances but the Israel’s reclaim most of it. • Due to a $2.2 billion arms deal between the US and Israel, OPEC places and oil embargo. This time is known as the “gas crunch” in the U.S. ask your parents about gas lines, etc.
1978 Camp David Talks –
• President Jimmy Carter brings Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel together to talk peace. • Talks begin in 1978, put the Peace Treaty is in 1979.
• Read the terms of the treaty…
• Was Sadat a “hero” or a “traitor”
Peace treaty –
Egyptian reaction –
1982: “The Lebanese War” or “Operation: Peace for Galilee”
• The Lebanese civil war began in 1975
• Israel’s publicly stated purpose was t drive the PLO forces from the border (40K) (Israel actually went into Lebanon in 1978 but withdrew quikly under the UN pressure) • But…Did Israel really want to destroy the PLO?
• Israel invades all the way to Beirut, which causes the people living the southern Lebanon (mostly shia) to rebel against the Israelis. • The PLO gets driven out and sets up its base in Tunisia (other PLO fighters scatter) • Israel’s proxy army in South Lebanon is the SLA (south Lebanese Army). They are the ones responsible for the Shabra and Shatilla massacres in 1982. • This invasion and eventual chaos gives rise to Hezbollah • Approx 20,000 Palestinian and Lebanese civilians die. • Israel finally gets out of Lebanon in 2000.
The 1987 Intifada
• Began on Dec. 9 when an Israeli driven truck collided with 2 vans waiting at an army checkpoint in Gaza. 4 Palestinians died. • There was a spontaneous “uprising” of the Palestinians due to many factory like: settlements being built in the occupied territories, attacks on Palestinians, frustration with Israeli occupation. • The Israelis countered with an ‘iron fist’
• Israeli military might against “rock-armed” Palestinians • Ended up with over 1000 Palestinian deaths.
• Brought the Palestinian plight to the international spotlight and brought world condemnation for Israeli harshness. • Now Israel’s biggest threat was not surrounding Arab nations, but the Palestinians inside Israeli occupied territory.
1988: King Hussein’s monumental move:
• King Hussein finally relinquished Jordan’s claims to the West Bank and said the PLO was the sole legitimate representative.
1988: The PLO’s monumental move:
• The Palestine National Council (PNC) stated 4 things: 1) there should be and independent Palestine 2) a recognition of Resolution 242 3) a rejection of terrorism 4) Israel had a right to exist
The 1993 Declaration of Principles (DOP)
• Yitzak Rabin, Yassir Arafat (and Bill Clinton)
• Israel recognized the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. • There would be a 5 year processes in which Israel would get out of the occupied territories and there would be Palestinian self-rule • The PA (Palestinian Authority) is created
o Israel would withdraw from Gaza and most of the West Bank o Election of a PA to run Gaza and the West Bank
o A final settlement would be discussed in the next 5 years of negotiation • 3 Contentions Issues
o The Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem, West Bank, Gaza o The status of Jerusalem
o The “right of return” of Palestinian refugees.
1994 Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty;
• Yitzak Rabin and King Hussein
• Jordan became the second Arab country to recognize Israel (the first was…?)
The “settlement” issue”
• In 1977 there were 17 settlements on the West Bank with 5,000 Israelis • In 1982: 100 with 20,000 “settlers”
• In 1988: 150 with 175,000 “settlers”
• In 200: 200+ with 200,000 “settlers”
• There were nearly 200,000 in Gaza in the year 2000
The rise of Hamas
• Organized in the 1990s, its support increased with the increased Israeli settlements and the iron fist of the Israeli government in the West Bank and Gaza. • The began to oppose the Fattah branch
• They won the PA elections in 2006.
• The west sees Hamas as a terrorist organization.
• 1996- Benjamin Netanyahu becomes PM – against the DOP • PM of Gaza Strip – PA – Ismail Hanijeh (hamas) • President of PA (West Bank) Mahmoud Abbas - Fattah
The 2000 Intifada:
• Began when Ariel Sharon went to the Al Aqsa mosque.
• This intifada was more violent than the one that started 1987. • There was Palestinian frustration as 7 years had passed and there was not any progress toward the peace process. • By 2003, there were over 2000 Palestinian deaths and 760 Israeli deaths.
• Begun about 2003
• “The Wall” is Israel’s 440 mile “security fence” • Was built on Palestinian Land
• It restricts Palestinian movement
Israeli demographics today:
• In the year 2008:
o Israel had 5.4 million Jews and 1.3 million Arabs o The West Bank and Gaza Strip had 3.4 million Arabs
1996- Binyamin Netanyahu becomes PM after Rabin’s assassination) He was against the DOP
Netanyahu becomes PM again in 2009
2 main Israeli Political Part are Likud (Netanyahu-conservative) and Labor (more willing to give Palestinians a state.)
2005 Israel gets out of the Gaza Strip and in June 2007 Hamas takes over Gaza Strip.