Chap 14-The Territorial expansion of the United States A. Community: Texans&TEJAOS “Remember the Alamo.”
1. 1836, Santa Anna(President of Mexico) came to subdue Texas-1,500 Mexican died,& Texas defenders(failed)- “remember the Alamo” eventually forced Santa Anna to recognize Texas independence. 2. Tejanos(S. Texans)-favored A. Settlers for their economic plan-authorized A. Colonies w/in Texas(central/ east)-attracted ppl from Miss. Valley-introduced slavery&cotton-Tejanos, both wealthy rancheros&poor cowboy/tenant farmer(vaqueros/peones). 3. Political&socially unstable first after revol. At 1821-Liberals favored loose federal union but strong states-Texas(not a state) favored local control-Liberals controlled Mexican city,1828-opposed A. In Texas-Tejanos defended A.-Seguin helped defeated Mexicans. 4. First A. Outnumbered by Tejanos-intermixed w/ them(frontier of inclusion)-later as more A. Came, started opposing Tejanos&conflict,prejudice-frontier of exclusion, anti-Mexican-few remembered Tejanos helped in Texas independence. Exploring the West:
1.1840,occupied all land east of Miss.R.&statehoods(except FL&WI)-majority lived w.-Market revol. Transportation&commerce induced expansion-source of national pride that seek for further expansion-established several frontiers-A. Took several century to understand the geography. The Fur Trade:
1. Flourished between 1670-1840s, important spur to the exploration of w.-B.+F. First to explore W. In search of beaver pelt-depended on N.A.(Cree,Assiniboins&Blackfeet)-creating metis-B. Dominated fur trade-A. Wanted to challenge it-Lewis&Clark expedition& “rendezvous”system by 1820s of Rocky M. Fur Company by Ashley-met at appointed location to trade- loud,polyglot&many-day affair w/ many nations. 2. Mountain men rarely contacted w/ A. Society-married w/ N.A.(helper& diplomatic links for tribes)-A.fur trade soon ended(1840s) bc less beavers-but mountain men helped to forge w. Geography w/Jedediah Smith(to CA) for permanent settlers that followed.
1. Govt. Played major rule in exploration&development of W.-Lewis&Clark Expedition 1804-06- precedent for others-Pike in 1806-07 to Rocky Mt ,Long in 1819-20 at Great Plains-continued after Civil War(Grand Canyon)- Mapped&illustrated started w/ Long’s expedition-A. Eager to know Far W’s landscape&inhabitants-artist like Karl Bodmer-these images contributed to emerging A. Seld-image&pride. 2. Geologist,botanist&surveyors mapped land sale for Land Ordinance of 1785 all the way to Pacific Ocean, sold at low$-govt.also shouldered for Indian removal, pay for soldier,compensate N.A.&support peace between settlers&natives. Expansion and Indian Policy:
1.While A. Artist painted w.N.A, easter natives were being removed to Indian Territory(Great A. Dessert) -justified by TJ as giving space for slowly civilization-but failed to predict the pace of settlers to w.-Santa Fe Trail in 1821&Overland Trail to CA&Oregon soon encroached Indian Territory-abolished N. Indian Territory by 1854-forced to accept smaller reservation or allotment-often sold to settlers again under pressure-lost both identity&autonomy. 2. 5 civilized tribes is somehow better-established new communities&self-governing nations w/ their own school&church(not different from A. Society they left)-also brought slavery&cotton w/ them&shipped them to NO-finally be able to resist pressure&remain self-gov.after Civil War. 3. “Indian problem”remained even w/ E.removal- W. Nomadic&warlike natives, Rocky Mt of seminomadic tribes&farming in the SW.-pioneers first ignored these issues, later war broke out after Civil War-remaining penned up on small reservations. The Politics of Expansion:
1.Rapid growth had many consequence-most significantly reinforced sense of pioneering ppl-1890s, Frederick Jackson Turner claimed expansion formed A. Into adventurous,optimistic&democratic(venture). Manifest Destiny, an Expansionist Ideology:
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