Topics: Scientific method, Research, Statistics, Hypothesis, Citation / Pages: 6 (1024 words) / Published: May 12th, 2014
(American Psychological Association (APA) Format)

Chapter I

Background of the Study

Describes the problem situation in general terms and demonstrates logical continuity between relevant works and the present study.
Cites pertinent data from existing documents or findings, methodological issues, conclusions, and recommendations from previous studies that shape and portray the problem situation
Gives a firm sense of the need and practical importance of the study.

Theoretical /Conceptual Framework and Research Paradigm

Discusses the merits of the theories/concepts that legitimize the: validity of the research questions meanings of the variables in the study, the measurements employed, and the design adopted analytic and interpretive approaches used

Depicts and briefly explains the conceptual blueprint that serves as the roadmap of the study either in the form of a:
Causal Paradigm
IPO (Input-Process-Output) Paradigm
Operational Paradigm (Process Flowchart) Statement of Problems and Hypotheses

Articulates the general problem and its logical components in the form of specific research questions.
States the corresponding research hypothesis after each research question


In the APA format, the following parts no longer appear as independent sections of Chapter 1:

Scope and Delimitations: the coverage, respondents, methods, measurement and analytic tools including their limitations are already evident in Chapter II (Methods)

Significance of the Study: this is already integrated in the Background of the Study
Definition of Terms is done: (1) within the text as they are used in the study for the first time; or (2) as content footnotes (to supplement or amplify substantive information)

Chapter II


In the APA format, the narrative “product” of the Review of Related Literature no longer appears as a separate chapter of the study. As a

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