Ch. 20 Vocabulary List
1. Genetic engineering – The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes. 2. Gene cloning - The production of multiple copies of a gene. 3. Restriction enzyme – A degrading enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium. 4. Restriction site – A specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a cut site by a restriction enzyme. 5. Recombinant DNA – A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources. 6. Sticky ends – A single-stranded end of a double-stranded DNA restriction fragment. 7. Cloning vector – An agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering. A plasmid that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into a cell is an example of a cloning vector, as is a virus that transfers recombinant DNA by infection. 8. Nucleic acid hybridization – Base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule. 9. Nucleic acid probe – In DNA technology, a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid molecule used to tag a specific nucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid sample. Molecules of the probe hydrogen -bond to the complementary sequence wherever it occurs; radioactive or other labeling of the probe allows its location to be detected. 10. Complementary DNA (cDNA) – A DNA molecule made in vitro using mRNA as a template and the enzyme reverse transcriptase. A cDNA molecule therefore corresponds to a gene, but lacks the introns present in the DNA of the genome. 11. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides. 12. Gel Electrophoresis – The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel. 13. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) - Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can...
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