Nottingham Trent University
Animal management (ANIM12109)
UNDERSTANDING MANAGING ANIMALS
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Student number: N0589241
Word count: 2185
1. Title page
2. Content page
3. Free–range chicken management system (1 of 3)
4. Free–range chicken management system (2 of 3)
5. Free–range chicken management system (3 of 3)
6. Agricultural water management and sustainability
7. Zoo management nationally and internationally (1 of 2)
8. Zoo management nationally and internationally (2 of 2)
9. Animal identification methods (table)
10. Risk assessment for chicken transportation from a farm to a slaughter house (1 of 2) 11. Risk assessment for chicken transportation from a farm to a slaughter house (2 of 2) 12. References
Free – range chicken management system
Poultry is one of the most popular meat products in the UK. EU marketing rules require that free–range poultry farming allows chickens to run free giving them a chance to spend at least half of their day in the open air. European marketing standards require that free-range chickens have access to an open-air run in the day time & in the night time chickens are let inside to protect them from predators. The birds should have the option to go inside when weather conditions are bad. In a free-range management system a chicken’s life span is longer than caged chickens, it also causes less stress to chickens in comparison to any other management system. This system requires minimal costs, but mortalities due to predators are quite high (Mallia J. G. 1999). Free–range chickens have an additional opportunity to show their natural behaviour. It gives them more space for exercising and they are able to get natural sunlight (DEFRA 2001). Access outdoors reduces the level of crowding for birds that choose to stay inside. Also more space and enrichment prevents chickens from cannibalism and feather pecking. Housing
EU marketing laws require that free-range chickens have access to open-air runs for at least half of their lives. There must be at least 1m² of range per bird. (Compassion in World Farming - March 2013) Substrate in the shelter needs to be straw like or wood shavings; this is so chickens can display their natural behaviour such as digging, dust bathing, pecking etc. Outside substrate has to be free draining and covered mainly in vegetation (DEFRA 2001), (Fig. 1). The area has to have some enrichment for birds like trees, bushes, hay piles etc. The roost must provide shade from the sun & shelter from the wind and aerial predators, real or apparent (planes, other vehicles, humans etc.). The building has to have plenty of open access for chickens to go in and out as desired. The housing needs to have easy access in all weather conditions for vehicles to park for bird transfers. Fig 1. Free-range chicken farm (Muttan P. 2006)
The shelter must have natural automatic ventilation control (side vents along the length of the housing, above the windows). The ventilation system needs to function so the air change rate is adequate to remove the heat from the building during hot weather. This is referred to as the maximum ventilation rate. During periods of low ventilation & cold weather it needs to be able to remove stale/unpleasant air and humidity (minimum ventilation rate). Uniform and draught free distribution of air within the building is important. (DEFRA Publications, 2001) Ventilation can be produced by natural forces or by powered fans (Fig. 2), either way the birds need to have the right temperatures at all times. Good ventilation is essential, especially in the summer time when weather gets hot. If ventilation is poor the birds might overheat, this could lead to stress and in the worst case, death. Ventilation helps to lower ammonia levels in closed areas; it also provides fresh air and reduces...
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