WEEK 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function.
The term anatomy refers to the structure and relationship of body parts such as tissues and organs. Physiology on the other hand is how these structures work as in individual and in the body as a whole. Take the circulatory system for example. The heart itself, blood vessels and blood is the anatomy. How these vital parts work together to transfer oxygen, nutrients, and waste throughout the body is the physiology.
List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level.
The smallest level is the chemical level. Here atoms form together to create molecules. Next is the cellular level where these molecules have formed cells that are smooth muscle cells. When similar types of cells come together they form tissue thus creating the tissue level. These cells are also further divided into 3 types of tissue: Epithelial, smooth muscle, and connective. These tissues also create blood vessels which are formed together to make up the organ level. When various organs are formed, they have specific purposes. Those that work together create organ systems. Several organ systems are then created, each with its own vital function for life, make up an organism, the largest level of structural organization.
List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system.
The Integumentary system is the organ that protects the deeper tissues from injury because it is the outer covering of the human body. The major organ is the skin. The Skeletal system also protects and adds support to the body organs. It attaches to muscle to assist in locomotion as well. The major organ is the bone but creates joints by cartilage. The Muscular system provides the body with movement and produces majority of its heat. Its major organ are the muscles located throughout the body. The Nervous system basically controls the body. It is a fast acting control system that responds to changes by activating muscles and glands. The major organ is the brain that works with sensory receptors, the spinal cord and nerves. The Endocrine system is responsible for the hormones in the human body. They help regulate things such as growth and metabolism. Major glands such as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland are considered the major organs. The Cardiovascular system is what keeps the body alive by providing oxygen and nutrients to every cell and every organ. Major organs of this system include the heart and blood vessels. The Lymphatic system helps with the immunity of the body as it returns vital fluids to blood vessels and rids the body of debris. Lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels are the major organs. The Respiratory system is the oxygen supply to the body. It removes carbon dioxide while it adds oxygen to the blood. Major organs of this system include the lungs, pharynx, and trachea. The Digestive system helps rid the body of what it no longer needs. It allows the body to take in nutrients and disposes of the rest. It begins in the mouth as it breaks down food. Major organs thus include the tongue, stomach, and intestines. The Urinary system, similar to the digestive system, helps to eliminate waste. It also maintains acid to base balance. Major organs include the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra. The Reproductive system is responsible for offspring production. Major organs of the male reproductive system include prostate gland and penis. Major organs of the female reproductive system include ovaries, uterus and vagina.
Name the six life processes that distinguish living from non-living things.
The six processes that consider something...
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