Analyse the Effectiveness of Situational and Social Crime Prevention Techniques in Reducing Criminal Activity.

Topics: Crime, Crime prevention, Criminology Pages: 2 (719 words) Published: June 20, 2013
Analyse the effectiveness of situational and social crime prevention techniques in reducing criminal activity. Crime prevention refers to the range of strategies that are implemented by individuals, communities, businesses, non-government organisations and all levels of government to target the various social and environmental factors that increase the risk of crime, disorder and victimisation. The two prevention techniques, situational and social, are effective in reducing criminal activity although it probably could be better. Situational crime prevention is based upon the premise that crime is often opportunistic and aims to modify contextual factors to limit the opportunities for offenders to engage in criminal behaviour. Situational prevention comprises a range of measures that highlight the importance of targeting very specific forms of crime in certain circumstances. This involves identifying, manipulating and controlling the situational or environmental factors associated with certain types of crime. It is also based upon assumptions regarding the nature of offending and of offenders. By gaining an understanding of these circumstances, mechanisms are then introduced to change the relevant environments with the aim of reducing the opportunities for particular crimes. Thus, situational crime prevention focuses on crime prevention rather than the punishment or detection of criminals and its intention is to make criminal activities less appealing to offenders. There is considerable evidence of the effectiveness of situational crime prevention in reducing crime, both in Australia and overseas. A review of the evidence by Eck (2006a) showed opportunity reduction measures can reduce crime in many circumstances with little evidence of displacement. An evaluation of the UK Reducing Residential Burglary Initiative found that areas where more money had been invested in situational prevention rather than offender-focused prevention and those that were flexible in...
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