An Evaluation of an on-Farm Food Safety Program for Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Producers; a Global Blueprint for Fruit and Vegetable Producers

Good Essays
An evaluation of an on-farm food safety program for Ontario greenhouse vegetable producers; a global blueprint for fruit and vegetable producers

A Thesis
Presented to
The Faculty of Graduate Studies
Of
The University of Guelph

by
Benjamin J. Chapman

In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
February, 2005

( Benjamin Chapman, 2005

Abstract
An evaluation of an on-farm food safety program for Ontario greenhouse vegetable producers; a global blueprint for fruit and vegetable producers

Benjamin J. Chapman
University of Guelph, 2005

Advisor:
Professor Douglas A. Powell

Fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasingly linked to cases of foodborne illness. Many produce farmers have implemented on-farm food safety strategies, employing good agricultural practices focusing on water, handling and sanitation to reduce risk. An illustrative case study to examine implementation trends was developed through the examination of current on-farm food safety issues and programs, with specific focus on the Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Growers ' (OGVG) hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP)- based initiative. In 2003, OGVG 's 200 members had a combined farm-gate value of $350 million and represented 41 per cent of North American greenhouse vegetable production. Program implementation barriers identified included: perceived costs of participation, the priority of food safety management; and, management/employee relationships. Effective implementation was size-neutral and value was obtained through market access. Produce industry stakeholders can apply the results of this research and create a template to be used in similar extension activities.
Acknowledgements

For the past four years of my life, food safety conversations followed me wherever I go. I 've discussed it at the dinner table with family at Thanksgiving; on a road trip to Atlantic City with friends; at a bar following a pick-up hockey



References: Altimore, M. 1982. The social construction of a scientific controversy: Comments on press coverage of the recombinant DNA debate. Science, Technology & Human Values. 41: 24-31. Altman, L.K. 1996. Outbreak of intestinal infection baffles health experts. New York Times. June 20, 1996. A14. Bartz, J.A. 1982. Infiltration of tomatoes immersed at different temperatures to different depths in suspensions of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Plant Disease. 66:302-305. Bartz, J.A., and R.K. Showalter. 1981. Infiltration of tomatoes by aqueous bacterial suspensions. Phytopathology. 71: 515-518. Bauman, H. 1990. HACCP: Concept, development, and application. Food Technology. 44:156-158. Bean N.H. and Griffin P.M. 1990. Foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973-1987: pathogens, vehicles, and trends. Journal of Food Protection. 53: 804-17. Berg, B. L. 2001. Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Allyn & Bacon, Inc. Toronto. 304 pp. Beuchat, L.R. 1996. Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. Journal of Food Protection. 59: 204-216. Beuchat, L.R. 1998. Surface decontamination of fruits and vegetables eaten raw: a review. WHO/FSF/FOS/Publication 98.2. World Health Organization. Geneva. 49pp. Beuchat, L.R. 2002. Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables. Microbes and Infection. 4: 413-423. Beuchat, L.R., and Ryu, J. 1997. Produce handling and processing practices. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3: 459-465. Beuchat, L.R., Nail, B.V., Adler, B.B. and Clavero, M.R.S. 1998. Efficacy of spray application of chlorinated water in killing pathogenic bacteria on raw apples, tomatoes, and lettuce. Journal of Food Protection. 61: 1305-1311. Bracket, R.E. 1999. Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 15: 305-311. Brethour, P. and Harding, K. 2005. Longer U.S. ban feared over new mad-cow case. Globe and Mail. January 12, 2005. A1. Brethour, P. 2003. Beef buyers wooed with cut-rate prices: industry urges shoppers to buy Canadian. Globe and Mail. July 19, 2003. A4 Bryar, P Bryar, P.J. 1999. Experiences with implementing HACCP based QA programs in the horticultural sector. Presented August 11, 1999 at: 6th Australian HACCP Conference. Sydney, Australia. Burnett, S.L., Chen. J. and Beuchat, L.R. 2000. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the surfaces and internal structures of apples as detected by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66: 4679-4687. Caswell, J.A. and Johnson, G.V. 1991. Firm strategic response to food safety and nutrition regulation. In: Economics of Food Safety. ed Caswell, J.A. New York: Elsevier. 356pp. Center for Science in the Public Interest. 2002. Outbreak alert 2002: closing the gaps in our federal food-safety net. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Washington. 64pp. Center for Science in the Public Interest. 2004. Outbreak alert 2004: closing the gaps in our federal food-safety net. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Washington. 24pp. Codex Alimentarius Commission . 1997. Principles for the establishment and application of microbiological criteria for foods. CAC/GL 21 - 1997. Codex Alimentarius Commission . 1999. Recommended international code of practice general principles of food hygiene. CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3 (1997), Amended 1999. Covello, V. 1992. Trust and credibility in risk communication. Health & Environment Digest. 6:1-5. Covello, V.T. and Merkhofer, M.W. 1994. Risk Assessment Methods. Plenum Press, New York. 319 pp. Cribb, R. 2000. Special report: dirty dining; many cities release restaurant reports; why can 't Toronto; there 's nothing world class about city 's food safety and industry training record. Toronto Star. February 20, 2000. A6. Datta, L. 1990. Case study evaluations. U.S. General Accounting Office transfer paper 10.1.9. Washington D.C. Dunwoody, S. 1993. Telling public stories about risk. In: National Agricultural Biotechnology Council 5. Agricultural Biotechnology: A Public Conversation About Risk. ed. MacDonald, J. F. National Agricultural Biotechnology Council, Ithaca, NY. 135pp. Durant, J. and Lindsey, N. 2000. The great GM food debate - a survey of media coverage in the first half of 1999. London, Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, Report 138. 61 pp. Environics Research Group Limited. 1999. Safe food handling study:A report for Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Retrieved December 2, 2004 from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/corpaffr/publications/1998environics/study_texte.shtml. Environics Research Group. 2001. Secondary Analysis of Public Opinion Research Regarding Genetically Modified Food and Related Biotechnology Issues. Retrieved December 7, 2004 from: http://cbac.gc.ca/documents/Environics_Published_English.pdf Esch, M Evans, W and Priest, S. H. 1995. Science content and social context. Public Understanding of Science. 4: 327-340. FAO/WHO. 1995. The application of risk analysis to food standards issues. Geneva. March 13- 17. Retrieved March 16, 2004 from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/march1995/en/. Fischhoff, B., Lichtenstein, S., Slovic, P., Derby, S.L. and Keeney, R.L. 1981. Acceptable risk. New York: Cambridge University Press. 185pp. Fischoff, B. and Downs, J.S. 1997. Communicating foodborne disease risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3: 489-495. Geldreich, E.E., and Bordner, R.H. 1970. Fecal contamination of fruits and vegetables during cultivation and processing for market. A review. American Society for Microbiology Annual Meeting. April 26, 1970. Boston, Mass. USA. Gerken, C. 2001. Branded meat programs. Proceedings of the 54th Reciprocal Meat Conference. Retrieved November 16, 2004 from: http://www.meatscience.org/meetings/RMC/2001/default.asp. Golden, E.. 1996. Berry Scare. Associated Press. June 28, 1996. Gonzalez, R.J., Luo, Y., Ruiz-Cruz, S. and McVoyb, J.L. 2004. Efficacy of sanitizers to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut carrot shreds under simulated process water conditions. Journal of Food Protection 67: 2375–2380.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Best Essays

    Food Safety and environmental requirements are becoming more stringent as a result of the increased knowledge of the risk and harm to health and environment. This is Consumer Awareness. These requirements have very important implications for trading, in particular for market access and development.…

    • 2967 Words
    • 12 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Good Essays

    Locavores Research Paper

    • 461 Words
    • 2 Pages

    safety of consumers can be brought back to a healthy state if they consume local produce.…

    • 461 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Editorial Analysis

    • 622 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Recently two farms in Iowa had to perform a massive recall in eggs due to a salmonella poisoning from contaminated feed. The poisoning has caused the two companies to recall more than half a billion eggs, and has made about 1,500 people ill. Now, the companies are claiming that they are committed to safety and that it is up to the consumer of the eggs to fully cook the eggs before eating. This argument is addressed to egg consumers raising awareness that farm CEO’s are overlooking safety procedures due to their cost. The editorial addresses the FDA of having a poor history of inspecting food providers, and ignoring what they find. Anyone purchasing not only eggs but food from normally trusted farms is included in the editorials audience portion.…

    • 622 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Avocado Mexico - Japon

    • 3229 Words
    • 13 Pages

    Food Safety is an important aspect of fruit marketing. Team Avocado was the first New Zealand avocado exporter to become HACCP certified and has developed a…

    • 3229 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    One of the greatest nagging issues in society today is the struggle for the advertising and teaching of sustainable food. This paper discusses this aspect and contends that sustainable food knowledge in the community is attainable through satisfactory promotion of health. There are, however, ideas for the development in advertising people’s rights to have additional knowledge about sustainable food and use it. The paper makes an analytical exposition of these ideas and theorizes that if these concepts are put to action, society will experience health development and understand why sustainable food is beneficial or even essential.…

    • 1232 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Best Essays

    Maple leaf foods

    • 1915 Words
    • 8 Pages

    The summer of 2008, reports that Listeria was found in numerous products and Maple Leaf’s products are being recalled. Not only have the products tested positive for Listeria but multiple deaths have been directly linked to Maple leafs products . This brings about two issues we need to address. The first issue is a public perception of Maple leaf and how this Listeria outbreak changed public opinion on the company. The second issue will be in the legal sector, from patrons that purchased Maple leaf meat products and became ill or passed on. Consumers are becoming hyper aware about the safety of their food and any time a company has a misstep like Maple leaf they are going to be negative consequences.…

    • 1915 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Best Essays

    Case Study

    • 4427 Words
    • 18 Pages

    References: “Agri-business cooperation between Riau and Singapore” Economic Development Board, Singapore, 13 July 2002. “Fresher and Safer Vegetables with New Standard.” SPRING Singapore, 07 September 2007. Good Agricultural Practice for Vegetable Farming, Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore, November 2006. The Principles of Organic Agriculture, International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement. Work-life Excellence Award 2006, Tripartite Committee on Work-life Strategy, 2006. Website: http://www.ifoam.org. NTUC FairPrice’s Website: http://www.fairprice.com.sg. NTUC FairPrice Cooperative Ltd Annual Report 2006/2007.…

    • 4427 Words
    • 18 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Better Essays

    Small farm scale

    • 713 Words
    • 3 Pages

    SMALL-SCALE FARMS CAN PROVIDE OUR COUNTRY SAFE AND NUTRITONAL FOODS DESPITE THE CHALLENGES THEY FACE…

    • 713 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Better Essays

    The Dangers of Agriculture

    • 2072 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries. Farmers are at very high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries, and farming is one of the few industries in which family members are also at risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries. In 1990, Congress directed NIOSH to develop an agricultural safety and health program to address the high risks of injuries and illnesses experienced by workers and families in agriculture. NIOSH supports intramural research and prevention programs at university centers in twenty states. These programs conduct research on injuries associated with agriculture, as well as pesticide exposure, pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and stress. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013) Farmworkers are exposed to many safety, health, environmental, biological, and respiratory hazards. These include vehicle rollovers, heat exposure, falls, musculoskeletal injuries, hazardous equipment, grain bins, unsanitary conditions, pesticides, and many others.…

    • 2072 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Best Essays

    Williams, P.RD., & Hammit, J.K, 2001. Perceived risks of conventional and organic produce: Pesticides, pathogens, and natural toxins. Risk Analysis, 21, 319-330.…

    • 4927 Words
    • 20 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Good Essays

    What is an example of a real life outbreak of this foodborne illness in the United States?…

    • 587 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Foodborne Illness

    • 2557 Words
    • 11 Pages

    Food safety is an increasingly important public health issue. Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to improve food safety. Food borne illnesses are diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. "In industrialized countries, the percentage of people suffering from food borne diseases each year has been reported to be up to 30%. In the United States of America, for example, around 76 million cases of food borne diseases, resulting in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths, are estimated to occur each year." (Geneva 2)…

    • 2557 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    The companies that manufacture food are regulated by two groups of the federal government. They are the US Department of Agriculture( USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration( FDA)(Hunter,2002). “The USDA is responsible for meat and poultry safety; the FDA for all other foods and food products”(Hunter,2002). Even though these agencies are charged with the safety of our food, their power is limited. Whenever people become ill due to contaminated food, the agencies can only request, not order, a recall(Hunter,2002). The only exceptions are for infant formulas or foods containg bacteria that could spread disease(Hunter,2002). The USDA and FDA, by these limits, are hindered in getting foods recalled causing delays in removing contaminated food in stores.…

    • 841 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    ethical paper GMO's

    • 3062 Words
    • 13 Pages

    There are many questions regarding how food is grown and raised in the United States. Over the past few years there has been a rising concern and major changes to our Food and Agriculture system. Technological advances, Pesticides, Antibiotics, Genetically Modified Organisms, (GMOs) and large factory farms that are spreading worldwide with rapid fire. The American’s right to access fresh, healthy food is under attack. If you want to keep eating the poisoned foods in your supermarkets today, then you can join the “scientists” who push so hard to inform us that genetically altered foods are safe for us. The repercussions, however, will be felt for a long time to come, and in many cases the consequences may be irreversible. USDA is sabotaging small owned farmers forcing them to accept the concept of mass production, and taking a purely un-ethical approach to limit the opportunity for Americans to buy fresh, local, raw-organic foods.…

    • 3062 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    The average American super market has over 47,000 products and the majority of these contain genetically modified ingredients. In the 1970s, there were thousands of slaughterhouses producing the majority of beef sold. Today there are only 13. Approximately 32,000 hogs a day are killed in Smithfield Hog Processing Plant in Tar Heel, N.C, the largest slaughterhouse in the world (TakePart). In 1972 the FDA conducted over 50,000 food safety inspections, and in 2006 conducted only 9,164. As a result of this E. coli and salmonella outbreaks have become much more frequents in America, and in 2007, there was over 73,000 people sickened by the E. coli bacteria (TakePart). In America food items containing GMOs are not required to be labeled, and according to NatureMoms up to 57% of people would be less likely to buy foods that are labeled. More than 60 countries, excluding the United States, require GMO food labeling because of their concerns about their health impacts, and some have even gone as far a banning GMO’s altogether (NatureMoms and Organic…

    • 1156 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays