Amebicides, Antibiotics and Antivirals (+definitions of well known diseases)

Topics: AIDS, Tuberculosis, Immune system Pages: 27 (6493 words) Published: October 15, 2014
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Unit

Task 1

Amebicides

Antibiotics

Antivirals

What they are?

Amebicides are agents that destroy amebae infections, especially those that cause amebiasis.

Antibiotics are a treatment that destroy or slow down the growth of bacteria.

Antivirals are agents that stop the growth and reproduction of viruses.

What diseases they treat?

Amebicides treat a disease called amebiasis; amebiasis is an intestinal illness that is commonly caught when someone eats or drinks something that is contaminated with a very small microscopic parasite called _Entamoeba histolytica_. The parasite is something called an amoeba, what this means is that it is a single-celled organism, and that is how the name came along.

Antibiotics can be used to treat mild conditions such as acne and a severe cold as well as possibly life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia that is a type of lung infection caused by bacteria.

Antiviral drugs treat infections like the flu, genital herpes and swine flue.

How they work?

Amebicides work by killing off all the bacteria that act as nutrition for amoeba, leading to its indirect destruction.

Antibiotics kill bacteria. Penicillin is a bactericidal. And what a bactericidal usually does is it either interferes with the development of the bacterium's cell wall or the contents of the cell. And bacteriostatic stops bacteria from multiplying.

Most antiviral drugs don't actually kill the virus itself but just stop their reproduction. Since viruses cannot reproduce without infecting a host cell antiviral drugs have been designed to interfere with the infection process, they could do that by blocking the virus from their host cell.

Malaria

Stages of development

The life cycle in humans begins when the infected mosquito bites, malaria parasites then leave the mosquito's salivary glands and enter the human blood stream during feeding. These malaria parasites enter the liver cells and multiply, these liver cells eventually rapture, releasing more parasites into the blood. The parasites go onto invade red blood cells multiplying which causes these cells to also rapture, at the blood stage that is when symptoms occur. Some parasites enter a red blood cell turning it into a male or female reproductive cell (gametocytes) these gametocytes are then transferred onto another mosquito who feeds on the host and the reproductive cycle continues in the mosquito.

Treatments used and impact on each stage

Lariam is an example of a treatment for malaria; it is a tablet that contains the ingredient mefloquine, which is a type of medicine called an antimalarial. It is used in both the prevention and treatment of malaria. the best stage for these drugs to be effective is the blood stage where the red blood cells are being invaded as they can inhibit further reproduction, the effect on other stages is not clearly known as those stages are relatively silent and symptoms do not occur then, so the earliest stage it could be treated is the invasion of the red blood cells, if treatment was not given in the earliest stage possible, then effects of treatment are weaker and less effective.

Effectiveness and side effect of treatment

Lariam has a 90% effectiveness rate in the majority of malaria-infected areas; the effectiveness is more prominent the earlier you take it.

Possible side effects:

Headache, dizziness

Visual disturbances

Confusion

Nausea or loss of appetite

Skin rash

Aching muscles or weakness

Vivid dreams

Whether the treatment cures, delays or inhibits the disease.

Lariam is thought to work by blocking the action of a chemical that the parasites produce to protect themselves once inside the red blood cells, this treatment results in the destruction of malaria thus curing the disease.

Task 2

HIV

Stages of development

There are 3 stages in which HIV develops.

Acute Infection: Within 2-4 weeks after...
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