antimicrobial agents

Topics: Bacteria, Microbiology, Virus Pages: 4 (940 words) Published: October 12, 2014

Antimicrobial Agents
Lisette Vazquez

October 27, 2013

Antimicrobial Agents

Antimicrobial agents are utilized to kill microorganisms that cause infections. In order to be able to kill these microorganisms we must have an understanding of the factor associated with the infection. The purpose of this paper is to explore the different types of antimicrobial agents and the differences between viral and bacterial infections. Antimicrobial Agent Categories

There are several antimicrobial agents to treat infections. Beta-lactams are the types ending in “illin” and those beginning with “ceph” or “cef” such as penicillin and the cephalosporin. The mechanism of action is the inhibition of bacterial cell growth by interference with cell wall synthesis, which bind to and inactivate the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). Another antimicrobial category is aminoglycosides, which usually ends with “mycin” or “cin” such as gentamicin and neomycin. Aminoglycoside are primarily used to combat gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella. Tetracyclines such as doxycycline are used against gram-positive, gram-negative and atypical organisms and are labeled “broad spectrum” (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). These types of antimicrobials are used for urinary tract infections and acne problems. Fluoroquinolones are used to treat illnesses such as respiratory and urinary tract infection. These medicines include ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Fluoroquinolones may cause sudden serious, and potentially permanent nerve damage called peripheral neuropathy (Miller, 2013). Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity against many gram-positive bacteria (Miller, 2013). Examples are erythromycin and azithromycin, which are used to fight against streptococci and staphylococci. Differences between Viral and Bacterial Infections

There is a difference between viral and bacterial infections and...

References: Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Clements, D. (2013). Bacteria infection or virus? Duke Health. Retrieved from http://www.dukehealth.org/health_library/advice_from_doctors/your_childs_health/bacterial_infections
Hessen, T., M. & Kaye, D. (2013). Principles of use of antibacterial agents. Infectious Disease Clincal North America 18; 435-450. Retrieved from Walden Library databases
Leekha, S., Terrell, L.C., & Edson, S. R. (2010). General principles of antimicrobial therapy. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 86(2): 156-167. Retrieved from Walden Library database.
Masterton, R., Drusano, G., Paterson, D.L., & Park, G. (2008). Appropriate antimicrobial treatment in nosocomial infections the clinical challenges. Journal Hospital Infection 55(1). Retrieved from Walden Library databases.
Miller, K. (2013). Some antibiotics linked to serious nerve damage. WebMD Health News. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/brain/news/20130826/fda-strengthens-fluoroquinolone-warning
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