The Alternatives for the future
By Pedro Albuquerque
Summary The real alternatives Proved oil and natural gas reserves World primary energy consumption Fuel fundamentals Fuel sources Alternatives for the future Dual-fuel Bio-diesel GTL Diesel Ethanol Hydrogen Gasoline Analyses & Conclusions Bibliography Acknowledgement 3 5 7 7 8 10 11 14 21 25 29 31 34 37 39 44 45
As the we live in a world that relies 99% in those two fuels for transportation. Many alternative fuels have some potential to change the future but just a few can really compete for secure place to power the future. Certain is that the change will happen and diesel and gasoline must be replaced or blended with alternative solutions mean while the big change doesn‟t occur. The rising prices of the oil crude barrel have many factors behind and each one of those factors are really complex to solve. The American economy is still diving into recession, the dollar keeps loosing to euro complicating the trades between America and Europe, the America and Iran are still in conflict and the increase of demand of fuel caused by the exponential rising of economies in Asia like India and China. Those situations keep the barrel price going up to standards that no one could expect ten years ago. These rises are causing world wide unwanted results as increase on inflation, and is also restricting the growth of the less developed countries. Other and not least important cause for a
change in fuels is the environmental issues, now as never before every body can talk about „Global warming‟. Global warming is basically the increase of the greenhouse effect which will be translated in the increase of the earth‟s temperature due to the emissions released by men. This subject is now a major concern for the foremost part of the population, from elementary school kids to the most advanced research scientists, politicians, executives, everybody feels now the need to help the planet. This movement is opening a market which all the major oil producers want to lead. Companies like Shell, BP or Texaco are spending millions of dollars in research to bring the best alternative fuels into market. In this dissertation we‟ll analyse different alternatives for the future. From the formula: Fuel + X (O2 + 3.77N2) → a .CO2 + b .H20 + c .N2 Was created an excel model to analyse the combustion and different properties of different fuels as number of moles of the reactants and products, Air/Fuel mass ratios, calorific values, net heat, emissions, calorific values (Kmol), flame temperatures and for the applicable ones the flame
temperature for 25% of EGR. The fuels studied were some of the most credible alternatives for the future as Ethanol, Hydrogen, Dual-fuel (methane + diesel), and two different bio-fuels, one of the first generation (Bio-diesel) and a second generation (GTL). To compare gasoline and diesel models were also made. To make the calculations presented on the dissertation the formulas bellow were used: (It‟s important to understand this concepts to understand the tables) Enthalpy of formation = h The enthalpy of formation is the amount of energy needed to put in to split a fuel into separated elements. Eg: CH4 into C and H‟s h CH4 = - 74.8 MJ Fuel + X (O2 + 3.77N2) → a .CO2 + b .H20 + c .N2 To calculate the net heat out: We‟ll have to multiply the „a‟ and „b‟ values for the enthalpy of formation of CO2 and H2O(gaseous) respectively.
putted in earlier to split the elements of the fuel (h of the fuel). From here using the molar masses we calculated the calorific values. From the thermodynamic properties of ideal gases and carbon we assumed that the enthalpy of formation of N2, CO2, and H2O at the temperature of 2200K is 63.36, 103.56, and 83.16 respectively. This will be used to calculate the flame temperatures. This values were also used to calculate the flame temperatures with 25% of EGR (exhaust gas...
Bibliography: Owen, Keith, and Trevor Coley. Automotive Fuels Reference Book. 2nd ed. Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1990 Knowles, Don. Alternate Automotive Fuels. 2nd ed.
Virginia: Reston, 1984. Warnatz, J, U Maas, and R W Dibble. Combustion. 4th ed. Springer, 2006 Goodger, Eric. Fuel Technology. 1st ed. Norwich:
This project was very interesting and useful for me as a future engineer, as I‟m looking forward to work in the fuel industry. I‟m very pleased with all the support and orientation that my project supervisor Dr. Malcolm McDonald has offered to me. I also have to be grateful to all the people that were directly or indirectly connected to this project as to my family and friends that have been supporting me when I needed. As I finish to write the dissertation I believe that I‟ve reached my goals in this project, after a long journey my models started to make sense, and the results real. I believe that was a very good combustion simulation, which gave me a total different knowledge in this area.
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