acid mine drainage

Topics: PH, Environmental issues with mining, Acid mine drainage Pages: 18 (4634 words) Published: September 23, 2013
Hydrometallurgy 104 (2010) 459–464

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / h yd r o m e t

Biokinetic test for the characterisation of AMD generation potential of sulfide mineral wastes
A.H. Hesketh a,b, J.L Broadhurst b, C.G Bryan a, R.P van Hille a, S.T.L. Harrison a,b,⁎ a

Centre for Bioprocess Engineering Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa Minerals-to-Metals Research Initiative, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Available online 17 June 2010
Acid mine drainage
Prediction test
Sulfide tailings

a b s t r a c t
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is formed by the microbially catalysed oxidation of sulfide minerals on exposure to moisture and air. It results in the ongoing contamination of water streams with acidity, sulfate and metal ions in solution, limiting subsequent use of the water without its remediation. AMD prevention is a key requirement for meeting mine closure standards and AMD prediction plays an integral role in waste management and AMD prevention. However, both the static and kinetic tests used currently have shortfalls, including only providing a worst case scenario, providing limited kinetic data, particularly with respect to microbial catalysis or requiring an excessive time frame for the provision of useful data. In this study, we review biological tests reported to predict AMD generation potential and propose an extension to these tests in the form of a biokinetic test. The proposed test provides information on the potential and likelihood of acidification upon microbial colonisation as well as the relative kinetics of the acid-consuming and acidproducing reactions. This provides more meaningful data than static tests, within a reasonable timeframe. Experiments performed to evaluate the biokinetic test, using copper sulfide flotation tailings, show results consistent with those of traditional static tests. However, these also provide additional kinetic information that could help to inform management strategies.

© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Acid mine drainage (AMD) from sulfide tailings deposits, waste rock, disused mine sites and spent materials is one of the biggest environmental challenges in the minerals processing industry. Typically, AMD has been addressed in an “end of pipe” approach. This has focused on deposition techniques to increase chemical and physical stability, which reduce AMD formation from the waste materials, or on approaches to treating AMD, or both. The long-term impacts of current AMD management practices are not well understood, and their implementation as well as the implementation of remediation strategies is costly and difficult. Previous research has shown that integrated waste management techniques can reduce the long-term potential for AMD generation, thereby reducing, rather than delaying the risk of AMD generation (Hesketh et al., 2010; Benzaazoua et al., 2008). Legislation is developing to place the burden of responsibility of waste dumping onto mining companies in perpetuity. This, and the growing awareness for the need to design towards a sustainable process industry, has necessitated a change in process

⁎ Corresponding author. Centre for Bioprocess Engineering Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa. Fax: + 27 21 650 5501.

E-mail address: (S.T.L. Harrison).
0304-386X/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.hydromet.2010.01.015

thinking to enable these risks to be monitored carefully to facilitate long-term risk assessment. AMD prediction plays an important role in planning for mine waste disposal. Typically,...

References: Allison, J.D., Brown, D.S., Novo-Gradac, K.J., 1991. MINTEQA2/ PRODEFA2, A Geochemical
assessment model for environmental systems, US EPA, EPA/600/3-91/021software
Benzaazoua, M., Bussiere, B., Demers, I., Aubertin, M., Fried, E., Blier, A., 2008. Integrated
mine tailings management by combining environmental desulphurization and
Bruynesteyn, A., Hackl, R.P., 1984. Evaluation of acid production potential of mining
waste materials
C.G. Bryan, A study of the microbiological populations of mine wastes, PhD thesis,
University of Wales, Bangor, 2006.
Bryan, C.G., Hallberg, K.B., Johnson, D.B., 2006. Mobilisation of metals in mineral tailings
at the abandoned São Domingos copper mine (Portugal) by indigenous acidophilic
Dixon, D.G., Petersen, J., 2004. Modelling the dynamics of heap bioleaching for process
improvement and innovation, Hydro-Sulfides 2004: Colloquium on Hydrometallurgical Processing of Copper Sulfides (Santiago)
Hesketh, A.H., Broadhurst, J.L., Harrison, S.T.L., 2010. Mitigating the generation of acid
mine drainage from copper sulfide tailings impoundments in perpetuity: a case
Johnson, D.B., McGinness, S., 1991. A highly efficient and universal solid medium for
growing mesophilic and moderately thermophilic ironoxidizing acidophilic
Komadel, P., Stucki, J.W., 1988. Quantitative assay of minerals for Fe2+ and Fe3+ using 1,
10-phenanthroline: III
Miles, A.A., Misra, S.S., 1938. Estimation of the bactericidal power of the blood. J. Hyg.
Parker, G., Robertson, A., 1999. Acid Drainage, Australian Minerals and Energy
Environment Foundation, Occasional paper no 11
Pradhan, N., Nathsarma, K.C., Srinivasa Rao, K., Sukla, L.B., Mishra, B.K., 2008. Heap
bioleaching of chalcopyrite: a review
Schumann, R., Kawashima, N., Li, J., Miller, S., Smart, R., Stewart, W., 2009. Passivating
surface layer formation on pyrite in neutral rock drainage, In Proceedings of the 8th
Smart, R., Skinner, B., Levay, G., Gerson, A., Thomas, J., Sobieraj, H., Schumann, R.,
Weisener, C., Weber, P., Miller, S., Stewart, W., 2002
Stewart, W.A., Miller, S.D., Smart, R., 2006. Advances in Acid Rock Drainage (ARD)
Characterisation of Mine Wastes
Conference on Acid Rock Drainage. ICARD, pp. 2098–2119.
Watling, H.R., 2006. The bioleaching of sulphide minerals with emphasis on copper
sulphides—a review
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • The Cause and Effects of Acid Mine Drainage Essay
  • Effects of Acid Mine Drainage Essay
  • drainage Essay
  • Mine Essay
  • mine Essay
  • Essay about Mine
  • Mine Essay
  • Mines Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free