Study SheetStudy Sheet

Claire Hasenoehrl

Physical Science (S2541215)

Date: ____________

Use the spaces below to take notes on the key concepts presented in this study.

Main Idea: All scientists use one common practice to conduct research — the scientific method. Describe in your own words the conditions that are assumed for science, the types of reasoning, and the steps of the scientific method.

Events recur according to discoverable patterns

Events have discoverable causes.

The process of reasoning from specific examples to general cases. Inductive reasoning is empirical, which means that it is based on experiences and observations in the real world.

A method of proof in which each step is a known fact, as it is based on previously known facts. The world can be described by simple mathematical relationships.

Future events can be predicted on the basis of past events.

Formulate a specific question based on observations.

Suggest a possible answer to the question, also known as a hypothesis. Devise an experimental investigation, and predict the outcome of the investigation.

Perform the experiment, gathering data and making observations. Analyze the results of the experiment and summarize your findings, comparing your predicted result with the actual result. Main Idea: Scientists consider several factors when taking measurements. Describe in your own words the following terms associated with measurement.

A description done solely in words

A description given in numbers

A measure of how consistently a result is determined by repeated evaluation.

How close a reading or measurement comes to the actual value of the quantity being measured. Number with decimal after the

1st digit, multiplied by 10 with an exponent.

A ratio that allows you to convert from one unit of measurement to another. Measured digits that are known with certainty plus one estimated digit

The smallest marking on the instrument. (Smaller the least count, the more precise the instrument is)

magnitude (numbers) dimension (units)

time (days)

mass, height, etc.

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Sig Fig Rules:

When rounding:

1. If the last digit is less than 5, drop it.

2. If the last digit is 5 or greater, drop it and increase the preceding digit by one.

3. If there is no decimal point, use rule 1 or 2 as appropriate, but chance the last digit to zero. (132 rounded to 2 sig figs is 130).

All nonzero numbers are significant. Zeros can/cannot be significant.

1. Any zeros between two nonzero digits are always significant.

2. Trailing zeros not needed to hold the decimal point are significant.

3. Trailing zeros- if you hide them and the number changes, then they are not significant except when rounded. (429.0 rounded to 3 sig figs is 430, where the zero is significant)