The Enduring Vision (vol. 5)Chapter 12 Outline

Topics: James K. Polk, United States, Henry Clay Pages: 12 (4144 words) Published: December 2, 2013

Deyon Keaton
Chapter 13: Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict, 1840-1848

I. Introduction:
After the murder of Joseph Smith, Brigham Young led the main body of Mormons from Illinois to a new homeland in the Great Salt Lake valley. In part, Young’s aim was to flee persecution by Gentiles (non-Mormons). Reasons for Mormons to head west:

(1) Deseret lay outside the United States; and Smith’s murder had led many Mormons to conclude that they could no longer live along the Gentiles. (2)Gentiles were also on the move west; the very remoteness and aridity of Deseret made it unlikely that any permanent settlement of Gentiles would take place. Mormons earned money in their new city by trade with Gentile wayfarers in less than a thousand days into James K. Polk’s presidency, the US had increased its land area by at least 50 percent. Most immigrants gravitated to the expansionist Democratic party, and the immigrant vote help to tip the vote to Polk, an ardent expansionist. Democrats saw expansion as a way to reduce strife between the sections. Oregon would go to the North, Texas the South and California to everyone. II. Newcomers and Natives

A. Expectations and Realities
A desire for religious freedom drew some emigrants to the United States. Their hope was fed by a continuous stream of travelers’ accounts and letters from relatives describing America as a utopia for poor people. But many emigrants faced difficulties. Many spent savings on tickets to boats that were delayed for months and many others were sold meaningless tickets. They encountered six weeks or longer on the sea, packed almost as tightly as what slaves encountered, and travelling on cargo ships. When they landed, they soon found that farming in American farms was very isolated, unlike in Europe where social and cultural lives revolved around communities. The Irish, who usually arrived in New England, found little land or capital for farming, and crowded into urban areas. Likewise, Germans, who arrived in New Orleans, found little opportunity with slave labor, and moved upriver and into urban areas where there was a community. By 1860. these two groups formed more than 60 percent of the population of several major cities. B. The Germans

In 1860, Germany was not a national-state but, a collection of small kingdoms. German immigrants came from a wide range of social classes and occupations. For all their differences, a common language kept them together, and German neighborhoods developed and prospered, much to the envy of Anglo-Americans who disdained their clannishness. In response, Germans became even more clannish. C. The Irish

Between 1815 and 1860, the Irish immigration into the United States passed through several stages. The Great Famine destroyed every harvest of Ireland’s potatoes, starving as many as a million people to death. To escape this, 1.8 million Irish people migrated to the US between 1845 and 1854. Overwhelmingly poor and Catholic, the Irish usually entered the workforce near or at the bottom. Irish men dug cellars and lived in them, or made canal and railroad beds. Women became domestic servants and entered the workforce at an early age. Irish usually married late, which makes natural the large number of single Irish women in America. Yet some struggled up the social ladder, becoming foremen and supervisors. Others rose into the middle class by opening grocery and liquor stores. The two groups both brought conflict. The poorer Irish competed directly with free blacks, stirring up negative emotions towards blacks and abolitionists. Meanwhile, the middle class clashed with native-born white workers. D. Anti-Catholicism, Nativism and Labor Protest

The hostility of native-born whites towards the Irish often took the form of anti-Catholicism. Even from Puritan times, there were high anti-catholic sentiments. Catholics made doctrine the province of pope and bishops. Conspiracies were rife. Future telegraph...
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