ss notes

Topics: Soviet Union, Bolshevik, Russia Pages: 8 (1541 words) Published: November 20, 2013

1855-1881 Alexander II
established the zemstvos: a form of local self government
First Russian westernization attempt
1861- Emancipation of Serf: was incomplete
serfs were left to pay for their land… redemption payments Mir: village community
1863-1864 reforms of law, education and local government
1881 Alexander II assassinated

1881-1894 Alexander III
instituted an era of repression and reaction
denounced democracy, free press
blood revolution
police force Okharana
1891 famine
crops failed and there were no reserves; Russia had great famine The Witte System: Railroads, Industry, Tax the Peasants
He wanted to expand Russian industry and develop its economy Building railroads will stimulate the growth of other industries Results of Witte System:
oGrowth of industry at 8% per year
oTrans-Siberian Railroad
oForeign investment
o“exhaustion at the base”
1894-1917 nicholas ii
1898 founding of Marxist Russian social democratic labor party
marxists who favored proletariat, working class
1900 international financial crisis
1902 founding of socialist revolutionary party
anti marxist, and anti capitalist
favored peasants and violence
1903 mensheviks and bolsheviks arose
bolsheviks wanted revolution ASAP
mensheviks were pro waiting
1903 massive wave of strikes
1904 russia goes to war with japan
Russia failed and this caused privitization and additional hardship 1905 bloody Sunday: led to mass distress in country
father gapon
October manifesto: granted civil liberties to Russian people and the establishment of parliament 1906 first duma: lower chamber of Russian parliament
1906-1911 stolypin assassinated
A.Stolypin believed that by abolishing the peasant commune, they would be more productive B.Kulaks: new peasant class, upper class peasants, had more money and were more intelligent C.Stop division of land; title of land goes to families

oRedistribute land so peasants get plot of land that isn’t scattered 1914 WWI
Russia was somewhat modern country but still very vulnerable 1916 rasputin murdered
nicholai left to lead his army and left his wife and Rasputin in charge 1917 bread lines in Petrograd, rioting and Nicholas abdicates,
Petrograd soviet formed,
Significant: soon became a venue where intelligentsia represents peasants and workers •Issued order #1: said soviet not the gov were in charge and that army should follow orders of soviet provisional government formed

Had no real power
Agreed to election of constituent assembly
Ended legal discrimination and got rid of secret police
Didn’t deliver on key issues
November Revolution
Lenin returns from exile
april theses:
was designed to get peoples approval rate
transfer of the entire state power to the soviets
confiscation of the landed estates for the benefit of the poor peasants no support for provisional government
1917 trotsky returns, Bolshevik central committee made decision to take power july uprising,
many bolsheviks arrested,
Kerensky becomes prime minister
kornilov coup
Bolshevik revolution
different from the Mensheviks who were not established for this reason, because they believed history would evolve in predetermined phases •thought peasants were the key to coming to power in Russia othey could be used as an ally to the proletariat

owould be junior members of the working class
othey must be addressed due to the great amount of them in Russia odifferent from traditional Marxist thinking
Marx despised the peasants who were useless remnants of an old system 1918 March Decree on Peace and Land
Armistice negotiations begin with germany
1918 constituent assembly meets once and is dispersed
ended in anti-bolshevik majority
treaty of brest litovsk
industry nationalized, war communism
general armistice.. WWI ends
1918: church and state were separated
cival war begins
Civil War
Reds (bolsheviks) and whites...
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