Definition of Sociology – The study of social behaviour and relationships. Explains why members of some groups behave differently than members of other groups.
Modern development of sociology is due to the:
Industrial Revolution and French revolution
Both lead to changes and growth of trade and cities as well as a new organization of work.
Auguste Comte – credited by some as the “founder” of sociology. Sociologists would be “priests” to guide society.
Emile Durkheim—society was like the human body: various segments work for the whole.
Karl Marx—societies are founded on power, coercion and conflict
Function: social arrangements exist because they benefit society.
Equilibrium: stability based on balance among parts and consensus.
Dysfunctions: problems that occur
Development: progress through differentiation to develop new forms and their integration.
Power: holds society together
Conflict: society’s natural state
Bourgeoisie: (owners of capital) dominate
Revolution was the means of change
Symbolic Interactionism Micro (small-scale) perspective
- Emphasizes subjective over objective
- Behaviour and attitudes depend on how people construct their social world
Agents: individuals have goals and pursue them
Mead: people interact by strings of symbols, e.g., Language
Blumer: people act toward things on the basis of meanings those things have for them
Game Theory: what one chooses depends on what others choose
- Focus on women and gender
- More activist: raises consciousness
- Interdisciplinary taking leadership roles
- Accept a broader range of approach to research
- Mix different sociological approaches
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
One of the major concerns of sociology is:
explain individual sources of behaviour
the difference between cultural transmission and cultural uniformity c)
to explain how membership in social groups affects individual behaviour d)
the source of deviant behaviour
to study the production and consumption of resources
Symbolic interactionism focuses on:
a macro level of analysis
the place of art in society
the autonomy of individuals
conversational analysis in groups
Feminist approaches include the following, except:
an examination of gender as one variable among many
looking at the informal and hidden aspects of social life c)
an examination of gender roles
a more disciplinary approach
acceptance of a variety of sociological models
Weber, more than Durkheim, believed that sociology should include:
subjective states of the individual
answers: 1.c, 2.d, 3.a, 4.b
Sociological Theory (Lecture 1)
Goals of sociology
Describe the social world
Explain how and why
Critique existing social arrangements
The term sociology was coined by Auguste Comte in 1988 •
Religion was the most important before this time
Within sociology there are sociological perspectives, they look at thing differently based on experiences and impact how you understand something; no one is more correct than the other •
The sociological theory is based on theoretical paradigms – a basic image of society that guides thinking and research o
Four main theoretical paradigms: structural functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic internationalism and feminism o
They impact how your research is done/looked at
Founding father – Emile Durkheim
Modern society creates anomie – a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals (normalness) o
Links: Family Change
• 1st transition (1870-1950) brought smaller families, and change in economic costs and benefits of children, along with new cultural environment – making it more appropriate to control family size.
• 2nd transitions (1960-present)
Perspectives on Family Change
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