AN ASSIGNMENT ON
EXPLORATORY&DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS
Submitted On: 21.01.2010
Dr. R. Nalini
Dept. Of Social Work
Dept. Of Social Work
RD is d logical & systematic planning & directing d research. It spells what occur in d successive stages of d research. Any research work have common purpose of finding answers to meaningful qns,besides have its own specific purpose of study. Purpose of Social research r basically 3- Explore a new topic, Describe a social phenomenon & Explain y sth occurs. It is based on these specific purposes v can divide the RD- Exploratory, Descriptive rd & Explanatory rd. Here we are discussing ERD&DRD.
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN
ERD is suitable when researcher is not familiar with the penomenon / community he want to study. So he aims to gain familiarity with new phenomenon / community. it’ll leads to new ideas and insights that help in understanding and formulating the development of hypothesis and for its more precise investigation. In ERD Development of hypothesis comes at end,it not test the hypothesis. ERD is flexible to permit consideration of many different aspects of a phenomenon. It is highly unstructured. We can understand t with a Doctor Analogy: when we approach a Dr with an illness he tries to be familiar with the patient&symptoms of disease.he is systematically exploring the complaints (using instruments,tests,questions...) and form a hypothesis tht the patient has this disease. The hypothesis is confirmed when the patient recovers after taking prescribed course of medicine. For example: A researcher wants to study social intersction patterns of PLHA,but knw little/nothing abt it,ERD is appropriate.
Methods of collecting info in ERD
a)Review of literature
This is the Simplest&economic way to gain knowledge of unfamiliar phenomena. Here the work already done by others is reviewed. The info thus gathered will serve as leads for further investigation. Inter disciplinary studies also cosiders as they may become avenues for new research programmes.
b) Experience survey
Interview the experienced people and obtain insight into the problem. Knowledgeable & experienced persons should not b ignored for they’ll b reservoirs of practical experiences.
c) Insight stimulating case analysis
This is helpful when few or no experienced persons to provide necessary information. Here intensive study of the selected samples are doing for stimulating insight. We should remind that remarkable theoretical insights of Freud were stimulated by his intensive study of some patients. In this case researcher shud remember tht his inquiry is constantly in d process of reformulation&redirection as new information obtains. He must have integrating power to combine diverse info and forming unified interpretation.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
This type is most widely used one. DRD answers qns of what,where,when&how and thus It provides concrete and factual info abt the phenomena. Here the researcher aims to gain accurate descriptionin a manner that involves min bias and max reliable. He should hav some pre-suppose knowledge. Eg: A researcher wants to study ppl of a community ,their education level,religous affiliation,occupation status ...etc. DRD is appropriate.
Important Focuses of attention in DRD
a. Formulating the objective of the study-what the study is abt and y is it being made? b. Designing the methods of data collection-what techniques of gathering data wil be adopted? Mention specific tool of data collection (observation,questionnaire,interviewing,examination of records…). c. Selecting the sample-hw much material wil b needed?
d. Collecting the data-where can the required data be found and with wat time period should the data be related? e. Processing and analysing the data-coding, classification, tabulation,...
References: 1. Lal Das D K, Designs of Social Research, 2008, Rawat Publications, New Delhi.
2. Devendra Thakur, Research Methodology in Social Sciences, 1998, Deep&Deep Publications, New Delhi.
3. Kothari C R, Research Methodology-Methods and Techniques, 2008, New Age international (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
4. Srivastava S C, Foundations of Social Research and Econometric Techniqes, Himalaya Publishing house, New Delhi.
5. Sharma B A V, Ravindra Prasad D, Satyanarayana P, Research Methods in Social Sciences, 1985, Sterling Publishers P (Ltd), New Delhi.
6. Earl Babbie, The Basics of Social Research, 2002, Wadsworth Thomson Learning,USA.
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