| Pharmacology Flow Chart
Pharmacology Flow Chart
Drug class – Anticoagulants
Common Examples – Oral anticoagulants: coumarins- warfarin, dicumarol Heparin- administers IV or deep s.c.
Mechanism of Action (MOA) – Anticoagulants prevent clot formation or prevent a clot from enlarging. Commonly used for treatment of DVT, myocardial infarction, pulmonary emboli, post operatively.
Side effects related to MOA – The most serious adverse reactions are hemorrhage, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, swelling of face/throat, bleeding from the rectum. The most common side effects include: nosebleeds and bruising.
Teaching – Aspirin may increase risk of bleeding; avoid OTC medication unless directed to use by doctor. Use electric razor to decrease risk of bleeding. Only use soft bristle tooth brush and monitor gums for signs of bleeding, monitor stool for signs of bleeding; report any black tarry stools to medical provider. Keep all scheduled appointments for lab work for regulating dosage of medication; too much of this drug may lead to hemorrhaging. Foods containing vitamin K may interfere with anticoagulant therapy. Alcohol can affect anticoagulant therapy, limit intake to one to two drinks socially. (Dana Moore, 2011)
Administration Considerations (Special timing, take with/without food, etc.) Remain consistent when eating foods with vitamin K. These foods will interfere with anticoagulant therapy.
Drug/Drug interactions (Major – prioritize most concerning) Do not take NSAIDs while taking anticoagulants due to increased risk of bleeding. A Normal balanced diet should be followed while taking anticoagulants. Required labs – PT/INR is most commonly used for monitoring patient’s coagulation; should be completed often to check the bloods clotting ability and adjust medication. CBC should be obtained every three months to monitor for bleeding. (Snyder, 2011)
Dana Moore, H. C. (2011). Anticoagulation Drugs: What Nurses...
Cited: Dana Moore, H. C. (2011). Anticoagulation Drugs: What Nurses Need to Know. Johns Hopkins Nursing.
Snyder, L. C. (2011). Pharmacology and the Nursing Process. Mosby Elsevier.
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