Sci 241 Week 5

Topics: Vitamin, Vitamins, B vitamins Pages: 82 (24622 words) Published: January 6, 2012
(©Reinhard/Age Fotostock America, Inc.)


Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, and pantothenic acid are B vitamins needed to produce ATP from carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Vitamin B6 is important for amino acid metabolism as well as energy production. Folate is a coenzyme that is needed for cell division. Vitamin B12, only found in animal foods, is needed for nerve function and to activate folate. Vitamin C is needed to form connective tissue and acts as a watersoluble antioxidant. Vitamin A is essential for vision, and it regulates cell differentiation and growth. Vitamin D is necessary for bone health. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant. Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting.

u s t A Ta s t e J

Do vitamins give you extra energy? Should everyone take folate supplements? Does eating carrots improve your vision? Can vitamin E protect you from heart disease?

The Vitamins
Vitamins Are Vital to Your Health Vitamins Provide Many Different Functions in the Body Vitamins Are Found in Almost Everything You Eat We Need Enough but Not Too Much of Each Vitamin Some Vitamins Are Soluble in Water and Others Are Soluble in Fat Many B Vitamins Are Essential for Energy Production Thiamin: Important for Nerve Function Riboflavin: A Bright Yellow Vitamin Niacin: Deficiency Caused an Epidemic of Mental Illness Biotin: Eggs Contain It but Can Block Its Use Pantothenic Acid: Widely Distributed in Food and Widely Used in the Body Vitamin B6 Is Important for Protein Metabolism Vitamin B6 Is Needed to Synthesize and Break Down Amino Acids Both Animal and Plant Foods Are Good Sources of Vitamin B6 Too Much Vitamin B6 Is Toxic Folate and Vitamin B12 Are Needed for Cell Division Folate: Important for Rapidly Dividing Cells Vitamin B12: Absorption Requires Intrinsic Factor Vitamin C Saved Sailors from Scurvy Vitamin C Is Needed to Maintain Connective Tissue Vitamin C Is a Water-Soluble Antioxidant Citrus Fruit Is One of the Best Sources of Vitamin C Vitamin C Is the Most Common Vitamin Supplement Choline: Is It a Vitamin? Vitamin A Is Needed for Healthy Eyes Vitamin A Comes in Preformed and Precursor Forms Vitamin A Requires Fat for Absorption and Protein for Transport Vitamin A Is Necessary for Vision Vitamin A Regulates Gene Expression -Carotene Is a Vitamin A Precursor and an Antioxidant Vitamin A Needs Can Be Met with Plant and Animal Sources Vitamin A Deficiency Is a World Health Problem Preformed Vitamin A Can Be Toxic Vitamin D Can Be Made in the Skin Vitamin D Is Needed to Maintain Normal Calcium Levels Vitamin D Deficiency Causes Weak Bones Only a Few Foods Are Natural Sources of Vitamin D Too Much Vitamin D Causes Calcium to Deposit in the Wrong Tissues Vitamin E Protects Membranes Vitamin E Is a Fat-Soluble Antioxidant Vitamin E Deficiency Damages Membranes Most of the Vitamin E in Our Diets Comes from Plant Oils Vitamin E Is Relatively Nontoxic Vitamin K Is Needed for Blood Clotting Vitamin K Deficiency Causes Bleeding Drugs That Inhibit Vitamin K Prevent Fatal Blood Clots The Requirement for Vitamin K Is Met by Bacterial Synthesis and Food Sources


Vitamin D Concerns on the Rise
By Karen Collins, R.D.
Dec. 5, 2003—A lack of vitamin D—thought to be a problem of a bygone era—is showing up in growing numbers of women, children, and the elderly, increasing the risk of bone disease and possibly other health problems. Exposing only the face, hands, and forearms to sunlight for 10 to 30 minutes, just two or three days a week, can usually produce all the vitamin D we need. Longer exposure doesn’t produce more of this vitamin. Yet today, many people’s lifestyles and locations do not allow them to produce enough, making dietary sources vital. For more information on vitamin D concerns go to


ren’t vitamin deficiency diseases a thing of the past? After all, the vitamins have been identified, characterized, and purified. We get them from...

References: 277
17. Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting. Since vitamin K deficiency is a problem in newborns, they are routinely given vitamin K injections at birth. Dicumarol, a
substance that inhibits vitamin K activity, is used medically as an anticoagulant. Vitamin K is found in plants and is synthesized by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract.
11. Why does vitamin C deficiency interfere with wound healing? 12. List two food sources of preformed vitamin A and two of provitamin A. 13. How does vitamin A help you see light? 14. Why does vitamin A deficiency cause the eye to become dry, cracked, and infected? 15. What are the risks of consuming too much vitamin A? too much -carotene? 16. Why is vitamin D called the sunshine vitamin? 17. What is the function of vitamin D? Name two food sources. 18. What is the function of vitamin E? Name two food sources. 19. What is the main function of vitamin K?
1. What is a vitamin? 2. List four factors that can affect how much of a vitamin is available to the body. 3. What do enrichment and fortification mean? 4. Name a function common to all of the B vitamins. 5. Why is thiamin deficiency a concern in alcoholics? 6. Why should milk be packaged in opaque containers? 7. What is pellagra? 8. How is vitamin B6 involved in amino acid metabolism? 9. Why is low folate intake of particular concern for women of childbearing age? 10. Why are vegans at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency? the elderly?
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