*ΔLyric: Originally a lyric signified a song sung to the accompaniment of a lyre. Thus lyric still carries the sense of a poem written to be set to music. A lyric is a common short poem uttered by a single speaker who is expressing his state of mind very often in solitude. In dramatic lyric the speaker is represented as addressing another person in a specific situation like the poem Canonization by John Donne. The genre comprehends a great variety of utterances from say the Dramatic Monologues of Browning complex evolution of feeling in the long elegy and the meditative ode. The process of observation, thought, memory and feelings may be organised in a variety of ways in different lyrical expressions. Lyric is a poem in which the poet writes about his thoughts and feelings. The basic type is the song, but we use the term to cover all poems that present the poet’s immediate response to life, including sonnets odes and elegies. Lyric poem deals with a range of experiences such as love, death, nature or religion or some domestic, social or political issue *ΔAbstract Poem: It is a term used by Dame Edith Sitwell for verse that depends chiefly upon its auditory values for its meaning. Such poetry is analogous to abstract painting in which the arrangement of colours and shapes is significant though no physical objects are represented. Words are employed with little regard for their usual connotations, but rather for their aural effectiveness in a pattern of full and approximate rhymes and in the manipulation of rhythm. Sitwell’s own poems in the collection called Facade exemplify the type: These lines from her “Hornpipe” where, we hear, the dumb Sky rhinoceros-glum
Watched the courses of the breakers’ rocking-horses and with Glaucis Lady Venus on the settee of the horsehair sea!
*ΔAmbiguity: In ordinary usage the term ambiguity means a vague or equivocal expression. Since William Empson published his Seven types of Ambiguity (1930) the term has widely been used to refer to a poetic device: the use of a single word or expression to signify two or more distinct references, or to express two or more diverse attitudes or feelings. Multiple meaning and plurisignation are alternative terms for the use of language. Eg: in the play Antony and Cleopatra when Shakespeare makes Cleopatra say “Come thou mortal wretch.. he implies a double edge to the word “mortal.” Here it implies both that the asp is “fatal” or “death-dealing” and at the same time it is itself subject to death. *ΔBallad: The popular ballad also called the folk ballad is the song, transmitted orally which tells a story. Ballads are thus the narrative species of folk songs, which originate and are communicated orally among illiterate or partly literate people. In all probability the original version of a ballad is composed by a single author, but he or she is unknown; and each singer who learns and repeats an oral ballad is apt to introduce changes in both the text and the tune, it exists in many variant forms. Typically the popular ballad is dramatic, condensed and impersonal: the narrator begins with the climax and tells the story tersely by means of action and dialogues, sometimes by means of dialogue alone and tells it without self-reference or the expression of personal attitudes or feelings. The most common stanza form called the ballad stanza- is a quatrain in alternate four and three-stress lines; usually only the second and fourth lines rhyme. Eg: this ballad from “Sir Patrick Spens” The King sits in Dumfurling towne,
Drinking the blude-red wine:
“O what will I get a guid sailor,
To sail this schip of mine?”
*ΔBlank verse: Consists of unrhymed iambic (ˇˉ) pentameter (five iambic verse) hence the term “blank.” Of all the English metrical forms it is closest to the natural rhythms of English speech and at the same time flexible and adaptive to diverse levels of poetic discourse and hence has been more frequently and widely used than any other type of...
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