lifespan development

Topics: Developmental psychology, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Erik Erikson Pages: 7 (711 words) Published: March 25, 2014
Part 1:
Theory and Research in Human
Development

Human development
¤  Studying change and constancy throughout the lifespan.

Basic Issues in Lifespan
¤  Continuous or discontinuous?
¤  One course of development or many?
¤  Nature or nurture?

The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced
Point of View
¤  Development as lifelong.
¤  Development as multidimensional and multidirectional. ¤  Development as plastic.
¤  Development as embedded in multiple context:
¤  age-graded influences
¤  history-graded influences
¤  nonnormative influences

Periods of Development
Prenatal

Conception to birth

Infancy and
toddlerhood

Birth to 2 years

Early childhood

2 to 6 years

Middle childhood

6 to 11 years

Adolescence

11 to 18 years

Early adulthood

18 to 40 years

Middle adulthood

40 to 65 years

Late adulthood

65 years to death

Scientific Beginnings
¤  Scientific study of human development dates back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
¤  Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
¤  Forefather of scientific child study.
¤  Natural selection and survival of the fittest.

¤  The normative period
¤  G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924) à founder of the child study movement and Arnold Gesell (1880-1961).
¤  Both were known because of their normative approach to development.

Scientific Beginnings (cont.)
¤  The mental testing movement
¤  Alfred Binet (1857-1911) à created an intelligence test which sparked interest in individual differences.

Mid-Twentieth Century Theories
¤  In the mid-twentieth century, human development
expanded into a legitimate discipline. As it attracted
increasing interest, a variety of theories emerged, each
of which still has followers today:
¤  The psychoanalytic perspective
¤  People move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social
expectations. The way these conflicts are resolved
determines the person’s ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety.

Mid-Twentieth Century Theories
(cont.)
¤  The psychoanalytic perspective (cont.)
¤  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) à parts of personality and psychosexual development.
¤  Erik Erikson (1902-1994) à psychosocial development.

¤  Behaviorism
¤  An approach that views directly observable events as the appropriate focus of study.
¤  Traditional behaviorism: John B. Watson (1878-1958) à classical conditioning and B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) à
operant conditioning

Freud s Three Parts of the
Personality
n 

Id

n 
n 
n 

Ego

n 
n 
n 

Superego

n 

largest portion of the mind
unconscious, present at birth
source of biological needs/desires
conscious, rational part of mind
emerges in early infancy
redirects id impulses acceptably
the conscience
develops from ages 3 to 6 from
interactions with caregivers

Erikson s Psychosocial Stages
Basic trust vs. mistrust

Birth to 1 year

Autonomy vs. shame/doubt

1–3 years

Initiative vs. guilt

3–6 years

Industry vs. inferiority

6–11 years

Identity vs. role confusion

Adolescence

Intimacy vs. isolation

Early adulthood

Generativity vs. stagnation

Middle adulthood

Integrity vs. despair

Late adulthood

Behaviorism and Social Learning
Classical
conditioning

Stimulus–response

Operant
conditioning

Reinforcers and
punishments

Social learning

Modeling

Mid-Twentieth Century Theories
(cont.)
¤  Behaviorism (cont.)
¤  Social learning theory: proposed by Albert Bandura à emphasized on modeling, also known as imitation or
observational learning.

¤  Cognitive-developmental theory
¤  Inspired by Jean Piaget à children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world:
¤  Sensorimotor – birth to 2 yrs.
¤  Preoperational – 2 to 7 yrs.
¤  Concrete operational – 7 to 11 yrs.
¤  Formal operational – 11 yrs....
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