Lecture 6: Motivation
Reading: Weiten CH 10
Immediate Sources of Motivation:
What drives the tasks we attempt on a day to day basis? (IMMEDIATE)
SO: what elicits behaviour?
Automatic behaviour = reflexes and instincts
Learnt behaviour = classical conditioning ( conditioned stimuli) & instrumental learning ( discriminative stimuli)
Stimulus Control - Habit Learning
Why individuals initiate choose or persist in specific actions in specific circumstance
Motivation is transient / temporary fluctuation of state ( learning is enduring ) and it is energizing
Motivation vs Learning:
Car analogy - motivation translates learning into action
4 Theories on Motivation:
How does instinct motivate behavior? Stickleback EG
- Biological state ( breeding season)
- Sign stimuli ( red belly of other males)
Action specific energy
Results in fixed action pattern
- Freud believed humans had a strong instinct and this drove all behaviour. - Darwin believed there was continuity. Animals had the most instinct and humans the least. James believed humans were highly instinctive but the instincts were influenced by learning and experience.
Studying human instincts:
Cross species similarity
Cross cultural similarity?
Separated identical twin studies
Non verbal communication / “instinctive behaviors”:
Study by Eibl and side viewing camera.
flirting / coy
Study conducted in a blind child showed that they had the same expressions and therefore it is thought that these expressions are instinctive.
Mate Selection - slide
Challenges with this theory:
does not explain the WHY is only descriptive way of talking about the behavior.
children have an instinct to play but the TYPE of learning depends on which culture they are in.
organise behaviour around a basic need
Organisms function best within a stable set of physiological conditions (HOMEOSTASIS) Derivation from HOMEOSTASIS produces NEED
NEED induces an internal state of tension
TENSION drives behavior to restore HOMESTASIS
Specific Drive theories:
There is a separate drive for each need - hunger, sex etc
The drive sensitizes people to stimuli important to satisfy / reduce the drive. The sensitization then motivates people to behave in a certain way
General Drive theories:
Incorporate learning. Propose that habit behavior is determined by learning
Problems with Drive Theories:
high arousal can impair performance
increasing drive can be reinforcing ( sex drive)
they don’t explain the qualitative role - how much you might like the same thing in different variants.
Non Homeostatic Drives
Human’s have an innate desire for comfort over food?
In this study there was NO sensory stimulation. The longest someone stayed in was 3 days.
The problem of sex:
There is no immediate biological need for it ( survival does not depend on it)
But; evolutionary theories
Motivation to behave in certain ways driven by natural selection
“survival of the fittest”
Fitness to reproduce
Difference between evolutionary & drive theories; - Push & Pull
Pushed by events which occurred in the past
Pulled towards things
Men think about sex more than women ( in a day) as they have less “investment” - don’t have biological changes unlike women
Women are more discriminating
Problems with these theories:
4. Incentive Motivation
behavior = drive x habit
New study = drive x habit x incentive ( value of the reward )
Learning can occur in the absence of the reinforcer and the reinforcer motivates behavior...
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