Plato’s Ring of Gyges
3 Parts of the Soul
Appetitive Part—Appetites (Food, Drink, Sleep, Sex)
Spirited Part—Emotional/volitional (will) Part (carries out dictates of rational)
Rational Part—Reason (to rule)
When each part performs its proper “functions properly___”, harmony is exhibited.
According to Socrates:
Human beings should seek inner harmony
When one is immoral___, s/he destroys his/her inner harmony___;
(i.e., s/he is damaged/diseased)
Disease always results in death
One who purposely does evil brings death___ upon him/herself.
Although an immoral (self-satisfied) person (outwardly) looks fine, s/he is dying on the inside.
We do wrong because we are ignorant not because we chose. (we wouldn’t choose death if we
knew better so we are ignorant)
Two Types of Egoism
Descriptive _/(Psychological Egoism):
Tells what individuals are like
Prescribes/recommends how individuals ought to act
Descriptive Psychological Egoism
Asserts that individuals always act for the sake of their own self interest
Self Interest =Personal Well-being/ advantage
Problem: Short-term_ or Long-term self-interest??? Conflict?
In its truest sense, self-interest is concerned with Long-term well-being.
Long term and short term often conflict ( humans have trouble thinking long term- they want the Rally burger) Two Types of Psychological Egoism
Actual Psychological egoism
Asserts that individuals always act in their own best interest. (people always have an angle: promotes selfishness)
Problem/Refutation: Individuals don’t always do what is best for them.
Do not have sufficient knowledge to be good or
Judge of what is in their best interest.
Weakness of Will
Motivational Psychological Egoism
Asserts that an individual’s actions are always motivated by the
desire to attain/ further their own best interest.
Problem/Refutation: Theories of motivation are difficult/ impossible to prove. Do what you think is in best interest
Do human beings truly aim for satisfaction_______, or
do humans aim for something else, but achieve satisfaction
as a side-effect______/unintended result?(do we do nice things in order to feel good)
NOTE: Even if Psychological Egoism is accepted as a valid/true psychological
theory, the origin of the tendency to be self- oriented remains contested___________________/questionable.
Prescriptive Ethical Egoism
Suggests/Prescribes that individuals ought (ought means a must for moral correctness) to act for the sake of their own Self-Interest
Self-interest = personal well-being or advantage_________.
Three Types of (Prescriptive) Ethical Egoism
Personal Ethical egoism
NOTE: This “theory” is silent on the motives/actions of others.
It is not officially a theory__, as it is not generalized
Is entirely self-centered / self-absorbed__.
Asserts that I ought to look out only for my own self interest; and
provides no guidance/commentary on what another person_____ ought to do.
Motto: “Look out for #1 (And to “heck” with everyone else!)
Individual Ethical Egoism(Philosophically weak argument – no viability) Prescribes that:
I ought to look out for my own interest. (and everyone else should look out for me too)
ALL individuals ought to look out for/serve my personal interest.
Motto: “The world revolves around me__________!”
Universal_ Ethical egoism
Prescribes that accepted individuals ought to look out for his/her own interests. Motto: “Every man for himself!” (everyone should look out for their own selves)
Evaluation of Ethical Egoism (Philosophically sound argument) Advantages ( I only have to take care of myself I don’t have to worry about other people) Encourages individual...
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