Psychology: The science of behavior and mental processes.
Behavior: Anything an organism does. (action we can observe and record.)
Mental Processes: Subjective experiences. ex: beliefs, dreams, thoughts, and feelings.
Trends in Psychological Science:
John B. Watson: Behaviorists study and experiment with observable behavior. B.F. Skinner: studied the way consequences shape behavior- operant conditioning.
Freudian/ Psychoanalytic Psychology:
Sigmund Freud: Founder of Psychoanalysis.
* studied and helped with a variety of mental disorders.
* Personality and Therapy.
Abraham Maslow (1960's) and Carl Rogers:
* studied people who were thriving rather than psychology problems.
* developed theories and treatments to help people feel accepted and reach full potential.
1. Neuroscience: How the body and brain enable emotion, memory, and sensory experience. 2. Evolutionary: How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes. 3. Behavior Genetics: How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences. 4. Psychoanalysis: How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts. 5. Behavioral: How we learn observable responses.
6. Cognitive: How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information. (memory, problem solving, decisions, reasoning) 7. Social- Cultural: How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
DREAMS( using different psychologies)
* neuroscience - hormones, electrical impulses
* behavioral - mannerisms during sleep
* psychoanalysis - symbols in dreams
* cognitive - remembering your dreams
Psychology's 3 Biopsychosocial levels of analysis:
Biology plus environment
1. The Deep Level: Biology; neurogenes, neurotransmitters, survival reflexes, sensation. 2. Outer Level: Environment; Social Influences; culture, education, relationships 3. Middle: Psychology; thoughts, emotions, moods, choices, behaviors, traits, motivations, knowledge, perception.
How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions (Scientific Method): Theory - created or based on data
Hypotheses - Derived from theory
Collect Data - Test the adequacy of each hypotheses
1. Develop a Theory: explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.
Theory: Sleep increases Memory 2. Develop Hypotheses: testable prediction based on theory
Hypothesis: people who get more sleep have better memory on exams 3. Collect Data (empirical evidence): does it support hypothesis or not? Define what you are studying in terms of specific operations. EX: People who get more sleep ( 8+ Hours) have better memory for exam material. Seen by Test Scores.
4. Analyze the Results: Do your results confirm the theory? Should you revise or reject theory?
5. Publish, Criticize, and Replicate Results: Report findings in a scientific journal so that others can test your hypothesis and replicate your findings. *Do this because it is a peer review. People criticize and help you make it better. And you get credit for experiment.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD:
1. Turn theories into predictions
2. gather information
3. analyze information
* Put aside own assumptions and biases
* flaw in how information was collected
* other possible explanations?
Research Methods of Psychology
1. Cross-Sectional Studies: Different groups, but studied at the same time. EX: study children 2,4,6,8. 2. Longitudinal Studies: same group, over a period of time. EX: study same group of kids at 2, then at 4, then at 6, then at 8.
1. Descriptive Methods:
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