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Biology Final Study Guide

By SWalk42 Jan 10, 2014 869 Words
Carbon- 4 bonds attached
Oxygen- 2 bonds attached
Hydrogen- 1 bond attached
Purines vs. Pyrimidines
Purines- adenine & guanine
Pyrimidines- cytosine, thymine (DNA), uracil (RNA)
Pentose vs. Hexose sugars
Pentose- 5 carbon atoms
Hexose- 6 carbon atoms
Carbohydrates Empirical Formula
Hydrolysis vs. Condensation Reactions
Hydrolysis- using water to break down protein into amino acids
Condensation Reaction- nucleotides
Enzymes- a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
- usually end in -ase
Ribose vs. Deoxyribose
Ribose- C5H10O5
Deoxyribose- C5H10O4
Lipids- Glycerol + Fatty Acids
-if one fatty acid bonds to a glycerol molecule, a monoglyceride is formed (L) -if two fatty acids bond to a glycerol molecule, a diglyceride is formed (F) -if three fatty acids bond to a glycero molecule, a triglyceride is formed (E) Proteins- made up of amino acids

Amino Acids- 20 Types
-"R" group changes
RNA- one strand
DNA- two strands (double helix)
Nucleic Acids- long polymers of repeating subunits called nucleotides Isomers- same molecular formula, but different structural formula

Chapter 7
Robert Hooke
-(English) observed cork through a simple microscope (1665)
-hollow boxes- cells (dead)
Plasma Membrane vs. Cell Wall
Plasma Membrane- surrounds an animal cell
Cell Wall- surrounds a plant cell
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes- most are single celled
-lacks internal structures surrounded by membranes
-DNA is concentrated in an area referred to as the nucleoid region
-have cytoplasm
-have plasma membrane
Eukaryotes- single or mlti-cellular
-contains membrane bound structures called organelles
-more complex
-have a membrane bound nucleus
Cilia vs. Flagella
Cilia- little hairs
Flagella- long tail
Chromatin Network- DNA
Plastids-chromoplasts- red/blue
-chloroplast- green
-carotene- orange/yellow
-leukoplasts- white
Animal vs. Plant Cells (shape)
animal- round
plant- rounded rectangle
Cytology- the study of cells
Cell- basic unit of life
Plasma Membrane
Osmosis vs. Diffusion
osmosis- diffusion of water molecules
diffusion- movement of molecules from an area of gueater concentration to an area of lesser concentration Turgor pressure- pressure that exists inside a cell
Isotonic, Hypotonic, and Hypertonic Solutions
Isotonic- a solution in which the sconcentration of dissolved substances is the same as the concentration inside the cell
- no change in cell size
Hypotonic- a solution in whichdsfaasdf the concentration of dissolved substance is lower than the concentration inside the cell
- pressure increases and cell swells
Hypertonic- a solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is higher than the concentration inside the cell
- pressure decreases and cell shrivels
Pinocytosis vs. Phagocytosis
pinocytosis- "cell drinking"; the cell taking in a drop of liquid
phagocytosis- "cell eating"; the lysosomes of white blood cells digesting bacteria Endocytosis vs. Exocytosis
endocytosis- moving into a cell
exocytosis- moving out of a cell
Plasma Membrane- Semi- Permeable (lets some stuff through)
- Lipid Bilayer (composed of 2 layers of fat w/ a layer of protein on each side) Transport Proteins- proteins embeddes in the lipid bilayer which allow needed substances or waste materials to move through the plasma membrane Active vs. Passive Transport

active- the transport of material across the concentration gradient
- lesser concentration to greater concentration
- requires the cell to expend energy
passive transport- the passive transport of materials across the plasma membrane by means of transport proteins (facilitated diffusion) Chapter 9
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
aerobic- requires oxygen
anaerobic- does not require oxygen
Photosynthesis- process by which autotrophs produce simple sugars and oxygens from water and carbon dioxide by using energy absorbed from sunlight by chloroplasts
Chlorophyll- traps sunlight
Light Reaction- produces ATP and NADPH+ H+
Dark Reaction- produces glucose (must go through 6 cycles to produce glucose)
NADP- hydrogen acceptor
Cellular Respiration- process by which food molecules are broken down to release energy
Glycolysis- the first step (in the cytoplasm)
- needs 2 ATP to start process
Electron transport- most ATP
Breaks down gluclose
Hydrogen acceptors-NAD and FAD
Chemosynthesis- when photosynethesis can't occur; uses chemicals to produce food Energy- the ability to do work
ADP vsafd. ATP
ADP- adensdsdffosine diphosphate
ATP- adenosine triphossphate
- energy storing molecule in cells
ADP --> ATP efsanergy is stored
ATP --> ADP esdffanergy is released
ADP and ATP have sugar bases
Clevage Furrow vs. sfafDivision Plate
Clevage Furrow- in animal cells; when the cell is separating, the dip between the 2 cells; divides from thefsda outside in
Division Pasdflate- in plant cells; when the cell is separating, the wall thatfsa forms between the 2 cells; divides from the inside out Chromosomes- hufdsaman body cell (46)
human reproductive cell (23)
Mitosis- 2 cells in the end (1 parent and 1 new)
Meiosis- 2 divisionssfaas
- sex cells
Interphase- DNA replication
- takes up majority of the time
Prophase- nuclear breakdown
- spindle forms
Metaphase- chromosomes line up across the center
Haploid vs. Diploid
Haploid- contain one of each kind of chromosome (gametes- reproductive organ)
Diploid- contains two of each kind of chromosome (body cells) Genetics
Monohybrid- one heterozygous trait x same heterozygous one trait
ex. het. tall x het. tall
**always 3/4 dominant, 1/4 recessive
Dihybrid- 2 heterozygous traits x same 2 heterozygous traits
ex. het. tall, het. green x het. tall, het. green
**always 9:3:3:1
Trihybrid- 3 heterozygous traits x same 3 heterozygous traits
ex. het. tall, het. green, het. axial x het. tall, het. green, het. axial
**always 27sfd9:9:9:3:3:3:1
Know Blood Typing, Incomplete and Complete dominance
gene interactions w/ onions, cattle, and ferrets

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