ATMO 336 Exam 2 Study Guide

Topics: Water vapor, Relative humidity, Heat transfer Pages: 9 (5144 words) Published: October 29, 2014
In this document, I jotted down some notes while putting together the reading material. These notes point out some of the reading content to pay particular attention to. The notes are divided into section headings based on the reading material. This is not meant to be a complete list of everything that you need to know from the reading Water in Atmosphere You should know what is meant by phases of water and phase changes of water. Water vapor is extremely important in the atmosphere for many reasons. A few of those reasons include Water vapor transforms into both liquid and solid cloud particles that grow and fall to Earth as precipitation. When water vapor condenses in the formation of clouds, large amounts of heat - calledlatent heatis released into the atmosphere. Latent heat is an important source of energy in the development of thunderstorms and hurricanes. Water vapor strongly absorbs HYPERLINK http//www.atmo.arizona.edu/courses/fall14/atmo336s2/lectures/glossary.html l infrared infrared radiation, making it an important gas in the Earths heat-energy balance. In fact water vapor is the largest contributor to the greenhouse effect on Earth. You should know what latent energy is. You should know the energy exchange between water and the surrounding environment as water changes phase, especially evaporation and condensation. Latent Heat Heat energy is stored in one of three states- ice, water, or water vapor. The energy is absorbed or released in each phase change from one state to another. Heat energy is absorbed as the latent heat of melting, vaporization, or evaporation. Heat energy is released as the latent heat of condensation and freezing. During the processes of melting, evaporation, and sublimation, water absorbs energy. The energy absorbed causes the water molecules to change their bonding pattern and transform to a higher energy state. In the Earth system, this energy must be supplied by the surrounding environment. Thus, these phase changes result in cooling of the surrounding environment. In other words water is absorbing energy from its surrounding environment (to undergo these phase changes). Since the surrounding environment is losing energy, it cools down. During the processes of condensation, freezing, and deposition, water releases energy. The energy released allows the water molecules to change their bonding pattern and transform to a lower energy state. In the Earth system, this energy must be absorbed by the surrounding environment. Thus, these phase changes result in warming of the surrounding environment. In other words water is releasing energy to its surrounding environment (to undergo these phase changes). Since the surrounding environment is absorbing or gaining energy, it warms up You should be able to describe the water cycle on Earth, particularly how water cycles through the atmosphere. You should know where phase changes typically take place and how that relates to energy either being absorbed by the atmosphere or removed from the atmosphere. You should correctly be able to use the terms evaporation, evapotranspiration, condensation, and precipitation. Energy from the sun drives the water cycle. Close to 90 of the water vapor in the atmosphere evaporated from the oceans and to a much smaller degree from lakes. Water is also evaporated from the land surface (out of soils) or transpired by plants. These processes on land are often lumped together and called evapotranspiration. Thus, the dominant process near the Earths surface is evaporation (liquid to gas), acts to remove energy from the Earths surface. Rising air currents carry water vapor up into the atmosphere, which cools the air, causing the water vapor to condense into tiny droplets of liquid water (or tiny ice crystals), forming clouds. This process, condensation (gas to liquid), releases energy up in the atmosphere where clouds form.In fact the water cycle transports energy ... removing it from the surface via evaporation and...
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