Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Terrorism Study Guide

Topics: Iran, Iraq, George W. Bush Pages: 7 (2710 words) Published: May 4, 2014
The Surge was when, in January 2007, President Bush announced a controversial plan to temporarily increase the number of US troops in Iraq by more than 20,000. Despite heavy casualties initially, the drop in violence that occurred as the year drew on was a source of encouragement, and a number of the additional troops were subsequently withdrawn. The 1979 Islamic Revolution happened when the shah of Iran fled due to mass protests against him. Ayatollah Khomeini came back to Iran, and a huge reform occurred, putting the country under Islamic law, and making a country based on the Quran and the Sharia. The Abu Ghraib is a prison in Iraq, west of Baghdad. It’s a facility notorious for brutality under the Ba’ath regime. There were also photographs taken of US soldiers abusing Iraqis here, which further damaged world opinion of the United States. Al Qaeda is a terrorist group that caused the September 11th attacks. They were loosely organized, radical Islamic groups led by Osama bin Laden. It had bases in Afghanistan and in about 60 other countries. They fought with the Mujahedeen, wanting to rid Afghanistan of Russian communist influences. Anwar Sadat was the Egyptian president after Nasser’s death in 1970. He took steps to open Egypt to foreign investment and private business. In foreign affairs, he moved away from the Soviets and closer to the US. In 1979, he became the first Arab leader to make peace with Israel. He promised that peace would have economic benefits, and it brought American aid, but it didn’t really improve daily life. He was assassinated by Muslim extremists in 1981. Aum Shinrikyo, meaning “Supreme Truth” is a religious cult that wants to control Japan. In 1995, cult members released sarin, a deadly nerve gas, in subway stations in Tokyo. Twelve people were killed and more than 5,700 were injured. This attack brought global attention to the threat of biological and chemical agents as terrorist weapons. The Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was the leader of the shah’s foes in Iran in the 1970s, even though he was exiled. He condemned western influences and accused the shah of violating Islamic law. As he returned to Iran after the shah fled, his supporters set up an Islamic republic based on the Quran and Sharia. Revolutionaries replaced secular courts with religious ones, abolished women’s rights, and banned western books, music, and movies. At first, they allowed some open discussion, but they were eventually just as repressive as the shah. He died in 1989. Ali Khamenei was a former president of Iran who was appointed Grand Ayatollah for life in June 1989 after Khomeini died. He succeeded Khomeini as Iran’s supreme leader and head of the Guardian Council. He successfully put down a wave of reformers and continues as the country’s highest religious authority to this day. The Ba’ath Party ruled in Iraq under Saddam Hussein. They managed to retain power by harshly suppressing uprisings of the country’s minority Kurds and its majority Shiite Arabs. In central Iraq, units of the Republican Guard were deployed to defend the capital. They ended up being defeated by the US and we took control of Baghdad’s international airport on April 4. Following the collapse of the Ba’athist regime, Iraq’s major cities erupted in a wave of looting that was directed mostly at government offices and other public institutions, and there were severe outbreaks of violence. After 35 years of Ba’athist rule that included 3 major wars and a dozen years of economic sanctions, the economy was in shambles. Biological Weapons are used by some terrorist groups. They have an equivalent power to chemical weapons in generating great fear among the public. It involves the release of bacteria into the atmosphere. This is worrisome because biochemical agents are fairly easy to acquire. Labs all over the world use bacteria and viruses in the development of new drugs. The use of chemical weapons has been popular among terrorist groups. This is when...
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