STUDY GUIDE: ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY EXAM #1:
CHAPTERS 1- 4
I. Multiple Choice: There are 30 multiple-choice questions worth 2 points each.
Definition of abnormality -
abnormal behavior is behavior that departs from some norm and that causes harm to the individual and/or others; Experience of personal distress: advantages- hallmark of many forms of mental disorder, individuals may be able to accurately report this, limitations- some psychological problems are not associated with distress, thresholds or cutoffs for distress are not always clear Dimensions underlying abn.
- Emotions, thoughts, and behaviors associated with mental disorder are present to some degree in all of us Symptoms:
Normal – E: good alertness and positive emotional state, C: I’m not getting the grades I want this semester but I’ll keep trying to do my best, B: going to class and studying for the next round of tests/talking to professors
Mild - E: feeling sad or down temporarily but not for long, C: I’m struggling at school this semester, I wish I could study better or I’ll fail, B: Going to class with some trouble studying/less contact with others
Moderate – E: feeling sad but a strong positive experience such as a good grade could lift mood, C: these bad grades really hurt, this may set me back for a while, I’m really worried, B: skipping a few classes and feeling somewhat unmotivated to study/avoiding contact with professors and classmates
Severe (less/more) – E: intense sadness most of the day with some trouble concentrating and some loss of appetite/ extreme sadness all the time with great trouble concentrating and complete loss of appetite, C: I’m so worried about these grades that my stomach hurts, I don’t know what to do/ These bad grades just show what a failure I am at everything, there no hope, I’m not doing anything today, B: skipping most classes and unable to maintain eye contact with others, strong lack of motivation/ unable to get out of bed, eat, or leave the house, lack of energy and frequent crying Demonological model – attempts to explain abnormality in terms of divine will and spirits (pre-historic/medieval times)
Trephining – the practice of drilling holes into the heads of people suffering from mental disorder to release the spirit (most people died)
Medical model – Hippocrates (ancient Greece) believed mental illness was cause by imbalance of humors (bodily fluids)
Melancholia – mental disorder believed to be caused by too much black bile Medieval period – aka Dark Ages from 476-1450, believed mental illness was due to supernatural causes/ devil possession (reinforced by church)
Exorcism – Treatment to persuade/compel evil spirit to come out of body
Tarantism – aka Mass Madness, maniacal dancing (usually until exhaustion) in large groups (comes from belief that individuals are possessed by spirit of a tarantula) Asylums – 15th to 17th centuries, housing developed for the mentally ill and beggars, to remove them from the general population
Kraepelin – father of modern psychiatry, developed first diagnostic system based on the medical model (dementia praecox ~ schizophrenia, manic depressive = bipolar disorder) Modern period - people were warehoused in hospitals with little actual treatment, then drugs such as Thorazine were used (1950s)
Deinstitutionalization - reform movement in which patients were released from hospitals back into society (caused by the popular use of thorazine)
Self – disgrace people assign themselves because of public stigma
Public – the general disgrace the public confers on people with mental disorder that can result in prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination
Bio models - view abnormality as an illness caused by dysfunction in the central nervous system
(treatment of choice is medication (in addition to therapy)) aka medical model
group of symptoms that tend to occur together (Goal: must have a cluster or a group of...
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