Major Depressive Disorder: Theories and Therapies

Powerful Essays
Major Depressive Disorder: Theories andTherapies
Deborah G. McGhee
Psychopathology and Social Work: SWK 663
Dr. Nikki Wingerson
July 25, 2012

1. Major Depressive Disorder Definition and Symptoms Major Depressive Disorder may be diagnosed as one or more episodes of a Major Depressive Episode. Symptoms of a major depressive episode include depressed mood, diminished interest or pleasure in activities, weight changes, sleep problems, slowing of speech or agitation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness and/or guilt, difficulties in thinking, concentrating, or indecisiveness, and thoughts of death, suicide, or suicide attempts. These symptoms are not due to another medical or psychological reason, and they cause clinically significant distress or functional impairment. (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) The cause of depression is not completely understood. It is, most likely, a combination of reasons, which may include chemical imbalances in the brain, psychological, or environmental factors, and genetics. Severe life stressors, such as divorce, or job loss, often contribute to depression. In a twelve month period, 6.7% of the U.S. population is depressed. Of those that are depressed, 30.4% are severe, or 2.0% of the total U.S. population. Lifetime prevalence in the U.S. is 16.5% of the population. (National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Prevalence) Women are 70% more likely than men to experience depression during their lifetime. (NIMH, Demographics) The National Institute of Mental Health also reports that Blacks are 40% less likely than Whites, to experience depression in their lifetime. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the total number of years a person may lose to illness, disability, or death. They have rated Unipolar Depression number one in diseases and disorders, with a loss of 10.3 years, well above heart disease and cancer. (NIMH, Leading Individual



References: National Institute of Mental Health. Major depressive disorder among adults: Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1MDD_ADULT.shtml Moorey, S. (2010). The six cycles maintenance model: Growing a "vicious flower" for depression. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38, 173-184. doi: 10: 1017/ S1352465809990580 Vranceanu, A., Gallo, L. C., & Bogart, L. M. (2009). Depressive symptoms and momentary affect: the role of social interaction variables. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 26(5), 464-470. doi:10.1002/da.20384 WebMD. (n.d.) Recognizing and treating depression: Antidepressants to treat depression. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/depression/symptoms-depressed- anxiety-12/antidepressants

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