In Latin, cerebellum literally means little brain, which is a very accurate way to describe this important part of the central nervous system. Located by the brainstem, beneath the cerebralcortex, the cerebellum is in charge of motor functions as well as cognitive functions. This part of the...
Hormones p. 61 Pituitary gland p. 61
7.1 Illustrate how researchers
identify the major parts and functions of the brain.
7.2 Describe the centralcore of the brain. 7.3 Describe the limbic system
of the brain.
7.4 Describe the cerebralcortex...
different stages of evolution: (1) the primitive centralcore; (2) the limbic system, which evolved later; and (3) the cerebral hemispheres, which are in charge of higher mental processes (see Figure 2–7). We will use these three basic divisions to describe the parts of the brain, what they do, and how...
3. Somatic - connects the skin or muscle with the central nervous system or visceral - connects the internal organs with the central nervous system.
• Voluntary movement
Aim 4: Identify the presence of prion protein (both bovine and sheep) or prion protein (core) in human postmortem brain tissue.
Prions are major causes of many human and animal neurodegenerative diseases. Because prion gene expression is abnormal in some mouse models of ALS, we...
central nervous system (CNS)? Where is it found? What is its purpose? Describe how it circulates in and around the brain and spinal cord. What happens if the flow is blocked?
* Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) circulates in the hollow ventricles of the brain, the central canal of spinal cord, and in...
14. Define cerebralcortex.
The cerebralcortex is the outermost layer of the cerebrum and is a layer of gray matter that contains 75 percent of all neuron bodies in the nervous system.
15. Describe the location and function of the primary motor areas of the cortex.
integrating area of the brain
S. Cerebralcortex: gray matter that caps white matter core
18. Organized into 6 well-defined layers
19. Primarily neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, and glial cells
20. Integration of neural input and initiation of neural output take...
formation, where would you predict the site of injury to lie in each group of patients? Explain.
For suggested answers, see Appendix A.
The cerebralcortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions
We turn now to the cerebrum, the part of the brain essential for awareness...
cerebralcortex that is connected to bothcerebral hemispheres and which helps link parts of the brain that are concerned with motor and sensory function. Near the margin of the lateral sulcus, two transverse (lying across) temporal gyri constitute the primary auditory area of the brain. The...
neurons project to portions of the CNS involved in the processing and interpretation of pain, the chief areas being the reticular and limbic systems and cerebralcortex. (p 484)
9. Know different clinical descriptions of pain; pain threshold/tolerance
The most widely used clinical classifications...
are the components of the central nervous system?
The nervous system is composed of bothcentral (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral components, with the latter having both somatic and autonomic (parasympathetic and sympathetic) subdivisions.
20. What is the...
, cerebellum, and limbic system.
8. Identify the four lobes of the cerebralcortex, and describe the sensory and motor functions of the cortex.
9. Discuss the importance of the association areas, and describe how damage to several different cortical areas can impair language functioning.
identifying the major regions of the brain and what functions of behavior the systems of each region control.
There are three main parts/ layers of the brain; they are the primitive CentralCore, the Limbic System, and the Cerebral Hemisphere.
The CentralCore is at the point when the spinal...
involved in sexual functions. The cerebral hemispheres consist of a core, the basal ganglia, and an extensive but thin surrounding sheet of neurons making up the grey matter of the cerebralcortex. The basal ganglia play a central role in the initiation and control of movement. (See Chapter 7 on Movement...
Explain the structure of the cerebralcortex (its hemispheres and lobes) and the function of each area of the cortex.
Define the concepts of brain plasticity, neurogenesis, and brain lateralization.
If you were someone who understood brain anatomy and were to look at the brain of an animal...
of the brain.
55. The most complex functions of human behavior are linked to the most developed part of the brain, the cerebralcortex.
56. The non-neural cells that support, protect, and nourish cortical neurons are called glial cells.
57. Compared to the cortexes of lower mammals, the human...
the cerebralcortex of an Opossum early in development before the cortex received input from the thalamus
o After brain development was complete, used microelectrodes to record activity of neurons in various regions of the cortex
o Boundaries of the specialized regions were different from normal...
humans than in apes. The neocortex (part of the
cerebralcortex), for instance is over three times larger than in chimps, even
though chimps and humans are pretty close to equal in body weight.
Each side of the brain is diveded by the central sulces into independant
halves. Just before the...
* Describe the clinical and anatomical evidence that supports the hypothesis that different areas of the brain mediate differentfunctions
Cells of the Nervous System
Reading: Gazzaniga et al. Chpt 2
* Describe the 2 main types of cells in the nervous system...